Why Macs have taken over College Campuses

If you ever visit a college campus you will notice the plethora of Apple laptops. Apple seems to supply a huge percentage of college students’ laptops, but why?

To start off with, Apple has a brand image that few other companies can match. From my experience in IT many people think that Apple machines “last longer” and “won’t break as easily” when compared to their PC rivals. And from my experience that isn’t necessarily false. Certainly in terms of build quality the average Mac will beat the average PC, but it’s not really a fair comparison. Macs cost far more than the average PC, and this higher build quality is priced-in. That said, even some higher-end PCs have build qualities that seem to degrade over time in a way that Macs don’t. My guess for why this happens is that PCs are constantly trying new things to differentiate themselves from the pack of similarly specced competitors which leads to constant experimentation. Trying new things isn’t bad, but with this throw-everything-at-the-wall mentality there will certainly be a few products that weren’t truly tested and that may have been pushed out to quickly. Apple on the other hand has a handful of laptops which for the most part have been around for years. They have mastered the art of consistently making reliable laptops. It’s that consistency that is really important. In all likelihood every major laptop manufacturer has made a very reliable computer, but very few have the track record that Apple has. It’s this track recorded that makes people trust that their new computer will last all four years.

To add to their reliability Apple also has the upper hand in its physical locations. Every urban area in the U.S. has an Apple store, somewhere to take your device if it’s acting up or check out a new laptop before you buy it. I think this plays a big role in Apples success. Being able to try out a product before buying it is a clear advantage. People get to know what the product will be like in person, which might make them more likely to buy it.  Secondly, knowing that if anything happens to your device there is a physical location where you can bring it can be very reassuring. If you buy an Apple laptop no longer will you have to wait on the phone for 3 hours trying to get ahold of someone helpful.  Just walk into the store and you’ll get the assistance you need.

I am not the only one to notice that stores are a big part of Apple’s success, as Microsoft has been building more and more stores to help compete. They realized that Apple would always have better customer service if they didn’t make there own stores. This has become even more important for Microsoft as they built up there hardware.

Finally one of the biggest reasons in my mind is that people buy Apple laptops, because they have Apple phones. It’s seems logical that one would buy more products from a company if they are satisfied with the one they have. I think this is what is happening with Apple computers. iPhones are incredibly popular with college-aged kids, so naturally they will gravitate towards the laptop manufacturer that makes their phones. Furthermore iPhones and Apple laptops work together in a way that a PC and an iPhone can’t. Apple devices can send iMessages, they integrate with iCloud seamlessly, and they share similar programs which can make picking either one up faster.

 

NEWS FLASH: GM Buys Self-Driving Startup

The era of self driving cars is coming soon, as we all know, and GM accordingly bought a small startup called, Strobe, Inc. which now has a very large influence and is considered a dominant force in the movement towards autonomous driving. Strobe is a very youthful startup that has recently sold ‘Lider’ (laser radar), a piece of technology that is crucial to the autonomy of the self-driving car to General Motors for an undisclosed amount. As the article says, “…technology is according to many in the incipient self-driving world critical to vehicles that will someday achieve full autonomy and be able to drive themselves with no human input…” We can see that many different companies such as Tesla Autopilot, Cadillac Super Cruise and Google’s Waymo are involved in the process of developing self driving cars. The race to autonomy is on and we will soon see the result!

What is Statcast?

The Technological Marvel that is Statcast

Next time you go to a baseball game look towards the press boxes; you may just spot a black box that looks inconspicuous. That black box is the reason Disney paid 1.1 Billion for a third of MLB Advanced Media. That black box collects data for a program called Statcast.

statcast blackbox

For those of you that aren’t aware of Statcast, you can think of it as a way to track everything that goes on in the baseball stadium. For those of you who are paranoid that you are always being watched, don’t worry: MLB didn’t spend millions of dollars to see how far and how fast you spill your drink. The Statcast tracking system is a combination of two other systems, one a system developed by Trackman that is based on the Doppler radar (flight paths of baseballs are infinitely easier to track than storms) and a few cameras that help with the three-dimensional aspect of the game. Statcast provides a better fan experience by helping the common view to see the subtleties that allow each player to make a catch, hit a home run, or fool a batter. This isn’t just for the viewer though, it is also for the player and other personnel actively part of the game. The players can use this data to determine where to play, to either side or further back or forward,

statcast

or can help a smaller batter to realize that at the launch angle they usually hit the ball all they have to do is hit the ball just a bit harder and their home run numbers would increase

.Stat cast

For those front office executives that build teams it helps them determine which pitcher throws pitches with a higher spin rate (the spin of the ball that goes from a pitcher’s hand to the glove of the catcher in a matter of milliseconds), which regardless of the prior results should trend to more strikeouts.

Spinrate

Even though this was introduced in 2013 teams are still figuring out how to take full advantage of the new data. At a sabermetric seminar (a gathering of some of the brightest minds in baseball) some teams’ executives were actively trying to find the best uses of the hitting portion of the Statcast.

Android Auto

Most cars these days offer some form of phone syncing capabilities. Usually, though, they don’t offer much support beyond hands free phone and text. Any app support is often native to the software and doesn’t interface with the app on your phone. Map support is either a separate navigation system in the car or limited to direction readout from the phone, with no accompanying visual.

Android Auto give you all these capabilities and more. Although initial native support was small, currently almost 87 2015 cars come with it built in and there are plans to expand that number to almost 150 for the 2017 models. Many major aftermarket headunit brands include Android Auto as well, including Pioneer, Kenwood and Alpine.

Google developed Android Auto to comply with common safety standards including the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). In order to do this, all apps supported by Android Auto must be checked by Google to ensure that they comply with those standards. They currently list 53 compatible apps on their play store which can be found here. A great example of this safety focus is text messages: no texts are displayed on the screen, instead they are read back to you. In addition voice commands , including “OK, Google” commands, are heavily relied on to maximize its hands free capabilities.

Right now in order to use Android Auto you have to plug it into your car via USB cable. When this happens all interaction is either through your car’s stereo or via voice commands (it’s unclear whether the phone’s microphone can be used for this or if the car has to have one). Google recognized this convenience and announced in May that they would be working providing Android Auto just through the phone. The interface would still look relatively similar, and all the voice commands would remain.

Although the platform is still relatively young, it looks like a promising app for drivers. At a time when distract

Datamoshing What it is and How it works

Modern video formats have been designed in such a way as to minimize the storage they take up while maximizing things like resolution and frame rate. To achieve this goal they have developed some clever techniques that can look very cool when they don’t work as they should.

Let’s start with frames. Each frame of a video is like a picture. Most videos very between 24 and 60 frames per second and as you can imagine having 60 pictures for only one second of a video would take up a huge amount of space. So what the developers of modern video formats did was only have full pictures when absolutely necessary. If you think about it a lot of the frames in a video are just a very similar picture with slight differences. So what many formats do is simply tell the old pixels on the screen where to go to make the new picture instead of creating a whole new picture. This process allows for much smaller file sizes for videos as well as allowing datamoshing.

What datamoshing does is it gets rid of the new full picture frames and instead only keeps the frames that tell the pixels where to go. What results is a new video moving based on another videos directions or an image from the same video where the pixels go in directions they’re not suppose to. This process can lead to some very cool and unique glitch effects that have been used to various degrees within different mediums to create an interesting and unique effect.

Here are some examples:

Top Ten Most Useful Keyboard Shortcuts for Mac

Keyboard shortcuts can be a great way to save small bits of time and to optimize the time you do spend on the computer. In this blog article, I will talk about the top ten most useful keyboard shortcuts for mac. In the spirit of the old OS X naming scheme, the editor is adding cat pictures.

#1 Hide
https://i.pinimg.com/originals/04/e7/6d/04e76d767beabda529ef9977d5d81d79.jpg

Hide completely hides the program you are currently on. It doesn’t minimize it or close it, instead, it is hidden. To use hide just hit Command+H.

#2 Minimize
http://ecdn.funzypics.com/grumpycatmemes/pics/16/Very-Small-Kitty-Cat-In-Some-Human-Hands-----So-Cute-And-Precious---Take-Good-Care-Of-It.jpg

Minimize does what it says. It will minimize whatever program you are currently using. To use minimize hit Command+M.

 

#3 Spotlight
https://c1.staticflickr.com/9/8363/8342361183_6ecd247d07_b.jpg

Spotlight allows you to instantly open up a search bar to check through all your files and applications, which can be extremely useful when looking for a file or application on the fly. To access spotlight hit Spacebar+Command

 

#4 Adjust Levels More Precisely
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When you adjust volume and brightness on your mac you see 16 little rectangles that represent the brightness/volume level. You might think that there are only 16 levels of adjustability, that’s where this shortcut comes in. It allows you to get far more precise with your levels. Just hold down Option+Shift; then use the volume/brightness keys as you usually would.

 

#5 Switching to Last Used Program
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Sometimes when multitasking it is useful to be able to switch between two applications quickly.  To do so hold down Command+Tab.

 

#6 Switching Between Programs
https://i.pinimg.com/originals/2d/a5/7a/2da57aff23540cc6d2e874a9cba5f575.jpg

Similar to #5 it can often be useful to move between programs that may not have been the last used. To do this hold down Command+Tab again, but keep holding Command down. Then use your arrow keys to move left and right

 

#7 Force Quit
http://www.drsfostersmith.com/images/categoryimages/highdef/9B-18408-61515C_803-cat.jpg

Sometimes a program will freeze up or stop functioning and oftentimes the best way to fix it is to force quit it and then reopen it. Unfortunately sometimes the program can make it hard or impossible to do on screen, so it’s useful to know the keyboard shortcut. To force quit an application hit Option+Command+Escape. To normally quit a program, hit Command+Q.

 

#8 Taking a Screenshot
https://www.walldevil.com/wallpapers/a94/cat-camera-wallpaper-funny-images.jpg

Taking a screenshot of your screen can often be very useful if you are having a technical problem as well as generally being a great way to show others things from your perspective. To take a Screenshot hit Command+Shift+3 or to capture only a certain area use Command+Shift+4

#9 Adding Emojis
http://clipart.info/images/ccovers/1496184261Smiling-Cat-Emoji-Png-apple-hd-high-resolution.png

If you ever felt like you needed more emojis this shortcut is for you. It allows you to open up the emoji window on your mac. Hold Command+Ctrl+Spacebar

 

#10 Open Preferences
http://www.catster.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/600px-computer-repair-cat.jpg

Each Application has its own preferences that let you make the application work how you want; to access them quickly hit Command key and the , key at the same time.

5 Cloud-based Applications You Can Host at Home

Do you have an old laptop lying around that you don’t know what to do with? Are you concerned about your data given recent tech company security breaches? Or maybe you’re just bored and want to fiddle around on some computers. Either way here are five free applications that you can host yourself:

  1. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/60/Nextcloud_Logo.svg/1200px-Nextcloud_Logo.svg.pngNextcloud – For those who don’t have access to unlimited cloud storage, or those who aren’t comfortable not being in control of their files, you can host your own cloud storage. Nextcloud provides similar functionality to storage providers like Google Drive and Box allowing for file sharing and online editing. There are client apps for all major phones and computers and even provides the option to enable a calendar app. Although Nextcloud is relatively new, it is based on Owncloud which is relatively established, although not quite as modern.

  2. https://forum.gitlab.com/uploads/default/original/1X/277d9badcbd723e913b3a41e64e8d2f3d2c80598.pngGitlab
     – For the developers out there that don’t want to pay for private repositories there’s gitlab. This is a very mature product that is packed full of features like Gitlab Continuous Integration, code snippets, and project wikis. Gitlab can integrate with many external applications as well such as Visual Studio, Jenkins, KanBan and Eclipse. For those that don’t have a free computer to run it on, they also provide hosting for both repository storage and continuous integration runners, although those options do cost money.
  3. https://tr4.cbsistatic.com/hub/i/r/2013/10/04/f874e321-e469-4527-be52-9a568fa20d8d/resize/770x/af17703c07c5ff25c9f4c64b36aba944/dokuwiki.logo.jpg
    Docuwiki
     – If you constantly find yourself looking up the same information or you just want a place to organize notes Docuwiki is the app for you. It supports a markup formatting style, multiple namespaces to organize your information, and diff report viewer to see view page changes. If the outdated UI doesn’t really appeal to you then Confluence is another option. It is geared more towards the enterprise environment, but for $10 (one time, not a subscription) you can host Confluence for up to ten users.

  4. Mail-in-a-Box
     – There are a lot of email providers out there, but if this is something you’re interested in hosting Mail-in-a-Box is a great solution. Although the setup of the the application itself is fairly easy, there isn’t much customization that can be done. For a more robust solution iRedMail might be the way to go. Note hosting email can be tricky, and generally is not possible from home internet connections.
  5. http://www.etny.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Subsonic_Logo_Large_v21.png
    Subsonic
     – All the audiophiles will appreciate Subsonic, an alternative to Google Play and iTunes. You can now store all your music yourself rather than being restricted to the Google or Apple music clients. With apps for all computers and phones you can listen to your music wherever you are. Subsonic includes support for playlists, most major music file formats, and customized themes.

Portability and the Effects on Device Internals

With the current trend of ever-shrinking tech devices, we have seen an explosion in the abundance of portable electronics. Fifteen years ago Apple launched the iPod, a device so foreign to people that Steve Jobs had to explain you could legally transfer your CD collection to your computer then onto your iPod. Now it is expected that the little (or big) phone in your pocket works as well as any desktop computer with fully developed applications and lasts a full day on one charge. There are many different advances that made this possible, such as the reduction in size of the fabrication nodes, increased battery storage, and much better video display options. But I think one change in design philosophy in particular has driven the current trend in tech.

Due to portability requirements phones have become a microcosm of the tech industry, specifically in the trend of increasing complexity at the cost of repairability. When the first iPhone came out there was no option to change battery or storage configuration, options both available on competitors’ devices. And yet people flocked in droves to Apple’s simpler, less-customizable devices, so much so that now Google produces its own phone, the Pixel, which has a non-removable battery and lacks a microSD slot. Logic dictates that there must be an outside pressure to force a competitor to drop a substantial differentiator from other products on the market; I would argue that factor is thinness.

The size of an SD card slot seems pretty inconsequential on a device the size of a desktop computer but when it takes up 1% of the total space of a device, there are arguments for much better uses of the space. A better cooling system, larger internal battery, or just space for a larger PCB are all uses for the extra space that may make the device better than it could have been with the SD card slot. When you look at the logic boards for the iPhone, this point is illustrated; there is just no space for any extra components.

Driven by space-saving concerns, complexity increases as smaller and smaller traces are used on the PCB and components have to shrink, shuffle or be removed. Proof of this is in the design of larger machines such as the Macbook, a 12-inch laptop with a logic board smaller than its touchpad, which features a mobile CPU and no removable storage.https://tr2.cbsistatic.com/hub/i/2015/04/23/f7db4def-28c8-4625-aa5d-effb6ff56197/c4d819ca18590fc382a2314ab705b2e2/applemacbook2015teardown025.jpg

  Demand for ultra-portability has led to devices that are so small that they are almost impossible to repair or upgrade. However, this trend cannot continue indefinitely. Moore’s law has taken a couple hits in the past couple years as Intel struggles to keep pace with it and PCB manufacturing can only get so small before it is impossible to fit all the components on it. As size becomes less of a differentiator and reaches its physical limits, tech companies will have to look to new innovations to stay relevant, such as increasing battery life or designing new functions for the devices.

How To Find Your Device’s MAC/Physical Address

The Physical address of a device is an unchanging number/letter combination which identifies your device on a network. It is also referred to as a Media Access Control Address (MAC Address). You may need it if you’re having issues with the campus network and UMass IT wants to see if the network itself is the problem.

To find the MAC/Physical address on a Windows 10 device:

Right click on the Start button to make a menu appear:

windows-key-x-menu

Select Command Prompt from the menu.

In the window that appears, type “ipconfig /all” without the quotes:

cmd

The resulting text displays information about the parts in your computer which communicate with the network. You’ll want to find the one that says “WLAN adapter” and look under that heading for the Physical Address:

WLAN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

To Find the MAC Address of a Apple/Macintosh computer:

Click the apple menu in the top left of the screen and click System Preferences:

system-preferences-hotkey

In the window that appears, click “Network”:

preferences_overview

Highlight WiFi on the left-hand side and click advanced:

wifiadvanced

Navigate to the Hardware tab to find your MAC address:

hardware

To Find the MAC address of an iPhone:

Use the Settings app, go to General>About and the MAC Address is listed as “WiFi Address”:

iphoneMAC

To find the MAC address of an Android device:

The location of the MAC address on an android device is unique to the device, but almost all versions will show it if you navigate to Settings>Wireless and Network; the MAC address will be listed on the same page or in the Advanced section:

Find-MAC-Address

You may also be able to find the MAC address in the “About Phone” section of the setting menu:

wifi-mac-address-android

 

CyberGIS: Software

Image result for carto cool map
(Superbowl Twitter Map — CARTO)

What is CyberGIS (Cyber Geographical Information Science and Systems)? CyberGIS is a domain of geography that bridges computer science and geographic information science and technology (GIST). It is the development and utilization of software that integrates cyber infrastructure, GIS, and spatial analysis/ modeling capabilities. In this TechBytes article I will discuss two current and popular CyberGIS software for academic, industry, and government use.

CARTO: Unlock the potential of your location data. CARTO is the platform for turning location data into business outcomes.

CARTO Builder was created for users with no previous knowledge in coding or in extrapolating patterns in data. A simple user interface comprised of widgets allows the user to upload their data and instantly analyze a specific subset of the data (by category, by histogram, by formula, or by time series). From calculating clusters of points, detecting outliers and clusters, and predicting trends and volatility with the simple press of a button — CARTO Builder is truly made with efficiency and simplicity in mind. While CARTO builder “can be used in every industry, we are targeting financial services, to help them predict the risk of investments in specific areas, and telecom companies,” Javier de la Torre, CEO at CARTO.

For more information about CARTO from TechCrunch , click here.

 ://blogs.umass.edu/it-07/files/2017/10/Screen-Shot-2017-10-28-at-5.37.47-PM.png”>

 Mapbox: Build experiences for exploring the world. Add location into any application with our mapping, navigation, and location search SDKs. 

Unlike Carto, Mapbox was built for developers and cartography enthusiasts. While the graphical interface is easy to navigate (similar to photoshop or illustrator) Mapbox’s goal was to “create something equally useful for tech developers who have no idea how to design and designers who have no idea how to code” (Wired). While MapBox lacks the data analytics features of CARTO Builder, it makes up in its ability to manipulate a map any way the user likes. Based in both DC and San Francisco, Mapbox is partnered with large companies such as The Weather Channel, National Geographic, and CNN. Mapbox is optimized for navigation, search, and vector maps rendered in real time.

For more information about Mapbox from Wired, click here.

As a CyberGIS geographer myself, I use both CARTO Builder and Mapbox in my classes and in my research. When I have a dataset that needs to be geo-referenced on a map and not necessarily analyzed — Mapbox is my first choice. The ability to not only alter the color scheme to highlight the various features of the map, but to choose fonts and for labeling is something I take for granted. When using CARTO Builder those features are still present but are quite limited  — and when using ArcGIS online those features are non-existent. If an assignment requires more analysis on a given set of data, CARTO Builder is a simple way to parse data and run the specific algorithms.

Links to the CyberGIS software:

Mapboxhttps://www.mapbox.com/ 

Cartohttps://carto.com/

Thinkpad is known throughout the enterprise and consumer markets as Lenovo’s rugged, minimalistic, and business-oriented laptops, tablets, and mobile workstations division. Started under International Business Machines (IBM) in 1992, Lenovo acquired the division in 2005 and has owned the company ever since.  For 25 years, Thinkpads have been beloved by power users, demanding businesses & corporate environments, enthusiasts and even astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS). Today we take a brief look at the Thinkpad 25 Anniversary Edition, and the features that have persisted through the years of one of the longest continual laptop series.

Looking at the Thinkpad 25, there appear to be more similarities with modern Thinkpad laptops than the older era of Thinkpads it is supposed to be reminiscent of. The Thinkpad 25 comes with ULV 15w 7th gen Intel Processors, NVMe storage, a 1080p display, Nvidia 940MX dedicated graphics, the beloved trackpoint, and the distinctive minimalist black matte finish. The Thinkpad 25 also comes with a separate box of documentation and items that look back upon the series’ history and development, 25 years of such.

https://www.laptopmag.com/images/uploads/5280/g/lenovo-thinkpad-25-004.jpg
Source: laptopmag.com

The biggest difference in the Thinkpad 25 has to be the keyboard. The inclusion of a seven-row keyboard in the Thinkpad 25 when almost all modern computers are six row keyboards is nothing short an industry nod to when the seven-row keyboard reigned supreme. The Thinkpad 25 keyboard also has other references to earlier models, such as the blue enter key, dedicated page up and down keys, the delete “reference” key and traditional, non-island styled/chiclet keys. Omitted from the Thinkpad 25 are several antiquated technologies from over the years, such as the Thinklight, legacy ports (Serial, VGA, expresscard), and handle batteries.

To many enthusiasts, the Thinkpad 25 was a letdown; essentially a T470 with a seven-row backlit illuminated row keyboard.  The Thinkpad 25 is also expensive, at nearly $2,000 fully configured, and with such minimal specifications, many businesses will shy away from these devices. So, who is the Thinkpad 25 meant for then? This device was nothing but a limited-quantity device, for enthusiasts and collectors who yearn for a nostalgic legacy; for those who stubbornly resist modern design and technology implementations such as shiny plastic or brushed aluminum with a certain illuminated fruit. For those that have stood by the Thinkpad line through two and a half decades of cutting-edge innovation and performance, and are willing to pay the price for a computer that nods to this era of computing, then the Thinkpad 25 may be a worthwhile investment.

How To Create A Helpful Tech Tutorial: The Tutorial

Have you ever found yourself watching tech tutorials online? Nothing to be ashamed of, as everyone has run into an issue they need help solving at some point in their lives. Now, have you ever found yourself watching a BAD tech tutorial online? You know, one where the audio sounds like it’s being dragged across concrete and the video is literally a blurry recording of a computer screen? It ironically feels like a lot of the time the people who make tech tutorials need a tech tutorial on how to make good quality tech tutorials.

So join me, Parker Louison, as I wave my hands around awkwardly for ten minutes while trying my best to give helpful tips for making your tech tutorial professional, clean, and stand out among all the low effort content plaguing the internet!

A Quick Look at Home Theatre PCs

Are you one of those people that loves watching movies or listening to music while at home? Do you wish you could access that media anywhere in your home without lugging your laptop around your house and messing with cables? If you answered yes to these questions, then a Home Theater PC, or HTPC, may be for you.

An HTPC is a small computer that you can permanently hook up to a TV or home theater system that allows you to store, manage, and use your media whether it is stored locally or streamed from a service like Netflix, Amazon, or Spotify. Although several retailers sell pre-built HTPCs that are optimized for performance at low power, many people use a Raspberry Pi computer because they are small, quiet and relatively inexpensive. These are key features because you don’t want a loud PC with large fans interrupting your media experience, and a large computer won’t fit comfortably in a living room bookshelf or entertainment center.

The HTPC hooks up to your TV via an HDMI cord which will transmit both video and audio for watching movies. If you have a home theater system, your HTPC can connect to that to enable surround sound on movies, or streaming music throughout your home. It would also require a network connection to access streaming services. Although WiFi is convenient, a wired Ethernet connection is ideal because it can support higher speeds and bandwidth which is better for HD media.

The back of a typical AV Receiver.

 

Once you have a basic HTPC set up, you can upgrade your setup with a better TV, speakers, or even a projector for that true movie theater experience. If you want to be able to access your media in several rooms at once, you can set up multiple HTPCs with Network Accessed Storage, or NAS. This is a central storage location that connects directly to your router that all the computers on your home router can access at once. This is a more efficient option than storing all of your media on each computer separately. They can even be set up with internet access so you can stream your media from anywhere.

What’s KRACK, and Why Should It Bother You?

You may have recently noticed a new headline on the IT Newsreel you see when logging into a UMass service. The headline reads “Campus Wireless Infrastructure Patched Against New Cybersecurity Threat (Krack Attack)“. It’s good to know that UMass security actively protects us from threats like Krack, but what is it?

The KRACK exploit is a key reinstallation attack against the WPA2 protocol. That’s a lot of jargon in one sentence, so let’s break it down a little. WPA2 stands for Wi-Fi Protected Access Version 2. It is a security protocol that is used by all sorts of wireless devices in order to securely connect to a Wi-Fi network. There are other Wi-Fi security protocols, such as WPA and WEP, but WPA2 is the most common.

WPA2 is used to secure wireless connections between the client, such as your smartphone or laptop, and the router/access point that transmits the network. If you have a Wi-Fi network at home, then you have a router somewhere that transmits the signal. It’s a small box that connects to a modem – another small black box – which might connect to a large terminal somewhere in your house called the ONT, and which eventually leads to the telephone poles and wiring outside in your neighborhood. Secure connections have to be implemented at every level of your connection, which can range from the physical cables that are maintained by your internet service provider, all the way to the web browser running on your computer.

In order to create a secure connection between the router and the client, the two devices have to encrypt the data that they send to each other. In order to encrypt and decrypt the data they exchange, the two devices have to exchange keys when they connect. The two devices then use these keys to encrypt the messages that they send to each other, so that in transit they appear like gibberish, and only the two devices themselves know how to decipher it; they use these same keys for the duration of their communications.

WPA2 is just a protocol, meaning that is a series of rules and guidelines that a system must adhere to in order to support the protocol. WPA2 must be implemented in the software of a wireless device in order to be used. Most modern wireless devices support the WPA2 protocol. If you have a device that can connect to eduroam, the wireless network on the UMass Amherst campus, then that device supports WPA2.

This KRACK exploit is a vulnerability in the WPA2 protocol that was discovered by two Belgian researchers. They were able to get WPA2-supporting devices to send the same encrypted information over and over again and crack the key by deciphering known encrypted text content. They were able to get WPA2-supporting Android and Linux devices to reset their WPA2 keys to all zeroes, which made it even easier to crack encrypted content.

The real concern is that this is a vulnerability in the WPA2 protocol itself, not just any one implementation of it. Any software’s implementation of WPA2 that is correct is vulnerable to this exploit (newsflash – most are). That means essentially all wireless-enabled devices need to be updated to patch this vulnerability. This can be especially cumbersome because many internet-of-things devices (think of security webcams, web-connected smart home tools like garage doors) are rarely ever updated, if at all. Their software is assumed to just work without needing regular maintenance. All of those devices are vulnerable to attack. This WIRED article addresses the long-term impact that the KRACK exploit may have on the world.

The good news is that many software implementation patches are already available for your most critical devices. UMass Amherst has already updated all of our wireless access points with a patch to protect against the KRACK exploit. Also, with the exception of Android & Linux devices which are vulnerable to key resets, it is not very easy to exploit this vulnerability on most networks. One would need to generally know what they are looking for in order to crack the encryption key, but an attacker may be able to narrow down possibilities with social cues, such as if they see you at Starbucks shopping for shoes on Amazon.

The general takeaway is that you should update all of your wireless devices as soon as possible. If you are interested in learning more about KRACK, how it works on a technical level, and see a demonstration of an attack, check out the researchers’ website.

Use Windows 10 Taskbar for Google Search

Search is a versatile feature in Windows 10. This tool allows you to browse files or programs on your computer, answer basic questions using Cortana, Microsoft’s personal assistant tool, and browse the web. The latter feature is what we will be focusing in this blog. By publishing this article, I do not intend to make a statement about which search engine or browser is better. It is simply a way for users to customize their PC so that it aligns with their search preferences.

Browsing the web is one of the most important features in a modern PC user, but Microsoft restricts web searches in the taskbar to use it’s own search engine, Bing, and will use the Microsoft Edge browser by default for any web links. Many Windows users install Google Chrome or another alternative to Microsoft’s default browser, and the best way for them to search the web with Windows 10 would be if it was using their preferred browser and search engine combo.

This How-To will mainly focus on using the search feature with Google search on Google Chrome. Again, I do not mean this article as an endorsement of one browser / search combo over another, and will specifically reference Google Chrome, because it is the most widely-used browser in the United States, and can re-direct searches using specific extensions not available on other browsers.

Step 1: Change Default Browser

First make sure you have Google Chrome browser installed on your Windows 10 machine.

Next, go to the bottom left and click the windows icon. From here, you can access the Windows search. Type “default” and you should be provided with an icon for “default app settings.” Alternatively, you can open the settings app and navigate to System, then Default Apps.

From here, scroll down to the “Web browser” section, and make sure that Google Chrome is selected.

At this point, any web search through the Windows search feature will open in Google Chrome (or your browser of choice). However, these links will still be performed using Bing, while the majority of people use Google as their default. Redirecting Bing searches to Google will be handled via a Google Chrome extension in the next step.

 

Step 2: Download an extension to redirect Bing queries to Google

To re-route searches from Bing to Google in the Windows search bar, you can use a third-party extensions, Chrometana. Chrometana will automatically redirect bing searches to your prefered search engine when you type in a query and are presented with an option that says “see search results.”

That’s it! From now on, any web search in the Windows search bar will open up a new Google search in Google Chrome. Hopefully you find this feature useful to you and allows you to browse the web the way that works best for you.

Maximizing your Windows 10 Battery Life

Maximize your Windows 10 Battery Life and Reduce your Device Performance, featuring X1 Carbon 2nd Gen.

Recently I was preparing for a trip to a music festival while taking classes over the summer. I knew that I needed to keep up with my courses but I also knew that I wasn’t going to be able to charge my computer’s battery very often, so I decided to write a short article on how you can maximize your computer’s battery life beyond normal power-saving methods.

After this guide you’ll be saving battery like nobody’s business and your laptop will be significantly less usable then before! Before we get started it’s important that you’re aware of my computer’s specs; depending on your computer’s specifications and application usage, results may vary.

The make of my computer is Lenovo and the model is the X1 Carbon 2nd Gen.

OS: Windows 10 Pro

Version: 1607 build 14383.1198

Processor: Intel Core i5-4300U at 1.90 Ghz – Turboboost to 2.49 Ghz

Ram: 8.00 GB (7.68 Usable) DDR3 at 1600 MHz

Hard Drive: 256GB M.2 SSD eDrive Opal capable

Wireless: Intel Dual Band Wireless-AC 7260 (2×2, 802.11ac) with Bluetooth® 4.0

Integrated Lithium Polymer 8-cell (45Wh) RapidCharge battery

Also note that the only application that I was using was Microsoft Edge – to save battery over using Google Chrome.

First head over to Device Manager (Note: you’ll require internet for this step). This can be accessed from the Windows Power User menu by pressing the Windows Key + X at the same time. From the Device Manager menu go through every device and make sure that the drivers for each device are up to date. This should ensure that all of your devices are using the best possible drivers that are more efficient for your system’s battery; out of date drivers can adversely affect your systems performance as well.

While in Device Manager we’re also going to make a few more changes. Depending on your how you use your machine, you may want to adjust these settings to your needs. Click on the “Network adapters” drop down menu and double click on the Intel Dual Band Wireless-AC (this may be named differently depending on your device’s wireless card). Click over to the Advanced tab and change the “Preferred Band” to 5.2 GHz, “Roaming Aggressiveness” to a lower setting (lower is better unless in a congested wireless area). Now click over to the “Power Management” tab and make sure that the “Allow the computer to turn off this device to save power” is checked. Click the “OK” button and move on to the “Intel Ethernet Connection I218-LM (also may be different on your device) and double click on this as well. Make sure that “Enable PME” is set to enabled, “Energy Efficient Ethernet” is set to on and “System Idle Power Saver” is set to enabled. After that, navigate over to the “Power Management” tab and make sure again that the “Allow the computer to turn off this device to save power” is checked again.

After going through your drivers, head over to the Power & Sleep settings for your laptop. This can be accessed by pressing the Windows key, navigating to Settings -> System (Display notifications, apps, power) -> Power & Sleep. I’d recommend setting your Screen to turn off after at maximum of 5 minutes and setting your computer to Sleep after a maximum of 15 minutes. Then, navigate to the bottom of that page and click on Additional power settings. This will bring your to your computer’s Power Options.

You may want to switch over to the Power saver plan, which should automatically drop your computer down to a more efficient battery saving mode, but we want to push that even further. Click on “Change plan settings” to make some changes.

Consider changing “Adjust plan brightness” to the minimum usable brightness, as it’s one of the biggest aspects of battery saving. I however made sure that the computer’s brightness was always at minimum possible level was a must to keep my laptop alive.. Primarily I used the computer in the early morning or late at night so that I could keep the screen at the minimum brightness while still being able to use the laptop.

After changing your brightness to the minimum, click on “Change advanced power settings”. Here’s where you can adjust the fine controls for different hardware and software’s battery usage. Make sure that the top drop down menu says “Power saver [Active]” and move on the the main table of items. I would recommend changing this to your own personal preferences but there are a few major aspects I would recommend adjusting in this panel.

In “Desktop background settings” -> “Slide show” I would recommend setting this to paused while on battery power.

In “Wireless Adapter Settings” -> “Power Saving Mode” switch this over to Maximum Power Saving on battery power as well.

In “Sleep” -> “Sleep after” make sure these are set to the values you set earlier, around 5 and 15 respectively to On battery and Plugged in. Also in “Allow hybrid sleep” is set to off for both options, this is because hybrid sleep is more taxing on the battery. In “Hibernate after” set these to slightly higher values than your “Sleep after” values. This will allow your PC to conserve more battery than typical sleep. Also set “Allow wake timers” to disabled on battery power. We don’t want anything taking your laptop away from it’s beauty sleep.

In “Intel CPPC Energy Efficiency Settings” -> “Enable Energy Efficient Optimization” and make this enabled for both options. Also in “Energy Efficiency Aggressiveness” and set both options to 100%.

In “USB settings” -> “USB selective suspend setting” set both of these options to enabled.

In “Intel Graphics Settings” -> “Intel Graphics Power Plan” set both of these options to maximum battery life.

In “PCI Express” -> “Link State Power Management” set both of these options to Maximum power savings.

In “Processor power management” -> “Minimum processor state” set both options to 5%. This is the minimum percentage that your processor will run at. I wouldn’t recommend setting this to below 5% for minimum operation. Also in “System cooling policy” change both options to Passive cooling, which will slow your CPU before slowing your fans. Also in “Maximum processor state” set this to below 100%. I personally set my computer to a maximum of 50%, but depending on your use case, this will vary.

In “Display” most of these setting we’ve already touched earlier, but in “Enable adaptive brightness” and disable this setting. We don’t want the system to decide it wants a brighter screen and eat up valuable battery resources.

In “Battery” I would recommend just making sure that hibernation comes on in your “Critical battery action” settings and that your critical battery level is set to around 7%.

A couple additional changes that I made is to upscale the resolution on the computer so that it’s not having to display content in native 2K on the X1’s screen. This depends on the machine that you are using however, and your preference of how you want your machine’s screen to look.

Now there are a few things left to be changed, if I haven’t missed anything in Windows 10. For these you’ll want to shut down your computer and enter its BIOS settings. On the X1 Carbon that I was using, this is done by hitting Enter repeatedly after hitting the power button.

BIOS settings user interfaces tend to vary dramatically across computers and manufacturers, but for the X1 Carbon that I was working with it looked something like this

Image result for x1 carbon gen 2 bios(aside from the fact that this isn’t a Gen 2, it’s a very similar interface.)

In the BIOS I was working with, it doesn’t recognize mouse or trackpad input, so you’ll likely have to navigate with arrow keys, enter and escape; bear with me.

Navigate over to the “Config” tab and down arrow down to the “> USB option”. Make sure that the “USB UEFI BIOS Support” is enabled, “Always on USB” is disabled, and “USB 3.0 Mode” is set to auto. Now hit escape and down arrow down to the “> Power” option. Hit enter and I would recommend switching all of the settings over to battery optimized settings. For this X1 specifically, make sure that “Intel SpeedStep technology” is set to Enabled, “Mode for AC” is set to battery optimized, “Mode for Battery” is set to battery optimized. Also, make sure to switch the settings under “Adaptive Thermal Management”, “Scheme for AC” is set to balanced and “Scheme for Battery” is set to balanced. Now under “CPU Power Management”, make sure this is set to enabled, and make sure that “Intel Rapid Start Technology” is set to disabled. After modifying all these settings, hit escape again.

Depending on your personal use, you can head over to the “> Virtualization” settings and disable the Intel Virtualization and VT-d features, although this may adversely affect performance and prevent operating system virtualization entirely, so use at your discretion.

Thanks for bearing with me until now. Now you should have a remarkably effective battery-saving laptop that performs significantly worse than it did before. This worked out great for me working on course assignments while on a camping trip. I hope this works out well for you as well!

Setting Roam Aggression on Windows Computers

What is Wireless Roaming?

Access Points

To understand what roaming is, you first have to know what device makes the software function necessary.

If you are only used to household internet setups, the idea of roaming might be a little strange to think about. In your house you have your router, which you connect to, and that’s all you need to do. You may have the option of choosing between 2.4GHz and 5GHz channels, however that’s as complicated as it can get.

Now imagine that your house is very large, let’s say the size of UMass Amherst. Now, from your router in your living room, the DuBois Library, it might be a little difficult to connect to from all the way up in your bedroom on Orchard Hill. Obviously in this situation, the one router will never suffice, and so a new component is needed.

An Access Point (AP for short) provides essentially the same function as a router, except that multiple APs used in conjunction project a Wi-Fi network further than a single router ever could. All APs are tied back to a central hub, which you can think of as a very large, powerful modem, which provides the internet signal via cable from the Internet Service Provider (ISP) out to the APs, and then in turn to your device.

On to Roaming

So now that you have your network set up with your central hub in DuBois (your living room), and have an AP in your bedroom (Orchard Hill), what happens if you want to go between the two? The network is the same, but how is your computer supposed to know that the AP in Orchard Hill is not the strongest signal when you’re in DuBois. This is where roaming comes in. Based on what ‘aggressiveness’ your WiFi card is set to roam at, your computer will test the connection to determine which AP has the strongest signal based on your location, and then connect to it. The network is set up such that it can tell the computer that all the APs are on the same network, and allow your computer to transfer your connection without making you input your credentials every time you move.

What is Roam Aggressiveness?

The ‘aggressiveness’ with which your computer roams determines how frequently and how likely it is for your computer to switch APs. If you have it set very high, your computer could be jumping between APs frequently. This can be a problem as it can cause your connection to be interrupted frequently as your computer authenticates to another AP. Having the aggressiveness set very low, or disabling it, can cause your computer to ‘stick’ to one AP, making it difficult to move around and maintain a connection. The low roaming aggression is the more frequent problem people run into on large networks like eduroam at UMass. If you are experiencing issues like this, you may want to change the aggressiveness to suit your liking. Here’s how:

How to Change Roam Aggressiveness on Your Device:

First, navigate to the Control Panel which can be found in your Start menu. Then click on Network and Internet.

From there, click on Network and Sharing Center. 

Then, you want to select Wi-Fi next to Connections. Note: You may not have eduroam listed next to Wi-Fi if you are not connected or connected to a different network.

Now, select Properties and agree to continue when prompted for Administrator permissions.

After selecting Configure for your wireless card (your card will differ with your device from the one shown in the image above).

Finally, navigate to Advanced, and then under Property select Roaming Sensitivity Level. From there you can change the Value based on what issue you are trying to address.

And that’s all there is to it! Now that you know how to navigate to the Roaming settings, you can experiment a little to find what works best for you. Depending on your model of computer, you may have more than just High, Middle, Low values.

Changing roaming aggressiveness can be helpful for stationary devices, like desktops, too. Perhaps someone near you has violated UMass’ wireless airspace policy and set up and hotspot network or a wireless printer. Their setup may interfere with the AP closest to you, and normally, it could cause packet loss, or latency (ping) spiking. You may not even be able to connect for a brief time. Changing roaming settings can help your computer move to the next best AP while the interference is occurring, resulting in a more continuous experience for you.

Scout’s Honor: Will the Rise of Sabermetrics and Data Replace the Role of Baseball Scouts?

As popularized by the book-turned-movie Moneyball, a large portion of baseball relies on sabermetrics, a newer analysis of statistics to gauge players and teams. Where in the past RBIs and batting average were heavily relied on as be-all indicators, newer statistics have emerged as more accurate in measuring ability, since the game has changed so much in the 100+ years since its inception. With all these new statistics and measurements, software has been developed over the past 30 years to calculate and simulate different scenarios. If you are curious, Out of the Park Baseball (OOTP) is a yearly video game series in which you manage a baseball team, simulating games and poring over stats just like loads of front-offices do. Alongside the software, there are devices in most ballparks measuring every pitch (called PITCHF/x), and even players on the field, just collecting all the data possible for use.

An example of a spread chart from PITCHF/x

With all the tools available now to measure just about every fine detail about a player, some teams are cutting back on their scouting team. Scouts have been essential for baseball teams since the beginning of the sport, looking at prospects, or talent on other teams, measuring them and seeing if they are of any interest to the team. The Astros just cut eight scouts from their team, so scouts around the league are becoming weary about the future. Some teams still heavily rely on scouts and find them indispensable, with teams like the Brewers using them for players in the lower minor leagues, where there are not enough stats to fully screen players. There is also some information that can’t just be measured through just data and film.

Scouts with their radar guns ready

In a similar vein, all this technology also frees up the scouts and allows them to just watch the game for qualitative factors. Whenever a scout is recording the reading off a radar gun, or writing down the time for a sprint, they aren’t looking at the game. This issue is the same for sports reporters, because whenever you’re writing something down, you’re not paying attention to play as it happens. With the advancements of PITCHF/x and the like, scouts don’t need to spend time doing the busy work of recording numbers, where devices can do them automatically. This frees the scouts from tedious tasks, and watch the players as they play and how they interact in detail. They can see how other players react to a play not directed at them, see their energy while playing, and just their general dispositions. Used properly, modern baseball technology might free up and help scouts, maybe not replace them entirely.

Politweets: The Growing Use of Twitter and Social Media for Politics

Now more than ever, politicians turn to Twitter and other Social Media platforms.

This isn’t anything new. Since the beginning of Twitter, Facebook, and other forms of social media, politicians have increased their presence on the internet to reach out to many potential supporters and keep up with constituents. Today, when running a political campaign, it is almost necessary to have a web presence in order to make your name and positions on certain key issues known to voters. But can there be too much twitter? Too much of a presence online? And could social media be hurting the game of politics for the future?

(Source: New York Observer, 2016)

During the 2016 election cycle, Twitter became the go-to platform for ranting and discussing politics to endless users doing the same exact thing. Politicians noticed this, and ran with it, tweeting non-stop and even directly at their political opponents. Most notably, the three main candidates, Donald Trump, Hillary Clinton and Bernie Sanders, all used twitter the most to rally support, attack each other, and tweet their stances on many issues. Even our previous president, Barack Obama, has an active web presence, logging 95 million followers and being the most followed notable politician worldwide.

Politicians like President Trump and Hillary Clinton have taken politics on twitter to the next level. Not only would they tweet about the latest story to rile up their respective sides, but they would also use it to directly mud-sling each other on the platform. Whether it takes the form of Trump’s long rants about “Crooked Hillary” or Hillary’s simple but effective “Delete your account” response, these tweets start a flood of supporters from each side going at it in the replies and in the twitter universe in general.

As the British website “The Guardian” points out, Twitter is relatively small in the political sphere, mainly used by politicians’ key and sturdiest supporters that help push an agenda, politicians use twitter to start a discussion and get into the mainstream news on TV, in newspapers, magazines, and even other websites. These sometimes outrageous claims and tweets by politicians make it on all of these platforms, furthering discussion of their agendas and somehow still making it into the minds of people who don’t even use social media at all.

This trend isn’t limited to twitter, as this carries over to Facebook and even YouTube as well. Facebook has also become a hot-bed for political debates and agenda-pushing. Despite the negative stigma around social media and politics, it seems to be working. According to the Pew Research Center, “one-in-five social media users have changed their minds about a political issue or about a candidate for office, because of something they saw on social media”. 

That number is astounding. A simple post supporting one candidate, one policy, and movement could have a huge adverse effect. Theoretically, if someone has 500 facebook friends/twitter followers and they make posts concerning on topic of political discussion or supporting a candidate, a good amount of those followers would see that post. Say 100 people see that post out of 500 friends, 20 people of that 100 would be change their mind on an issue or candidate.

Whether you like it or not, Politicians using social media to further the political discussion is working, and is here to stay. President Trump will continue to push his agenda; his opponents/supporters will continue to spread their beliefs across the platform, and tweets by any politician will filter through the world of social media into everyday news outlets. This is a trend that is only expected to grow in the next coming elections and years, and a trend that could potentially either help or hurt the political sphere as a whole.

For more reading, you could visit either of these sources based around the political discussion that I used to research this article:

https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/jul/31/trash-talk-how-twitter-is-shaping-the-new-politics

2. The tone of social media discussions around politics

The Scroll Lock Key, A Brief History

Long ago in the year 1981, IBM released their original PC keyboard. It came with a set of 83 keys which have since become industry standard. However, the keyboard has evolved much over the 36 years since its creation. Most have changed key placements and adding, combining or removing keys due to evolving technological needs

But there is a key that has managed to hang on through history, despite most people not knowing what it even does. Today, we explpore the Scroll Lock  key.

 

Image result for scroll lock

 

The Original Purpose

Back when the Scroll Lock key was first invented, mice and graphical operating systems were still not mainstream like they are today. Today when when typing documents, we can use our mouse to point and click to move the typing cursor. Back then, the arrow keys were used to move your typing cursor, or to scroll the page. Toggling the Scroll Lock key would disable scrolling with the arrow keys, and allow you to move your typing cursor through the page.

But mice are widespread now, so why is the key still there?

 

Uses
There are two very popular uses for the Scroll Lock key today:

Microsoft Excel
In Excel, the arrow keys navigate cells by default. However, when the Scroll Lock key is toggled, the arrow keys will now scroll the entire spreadsheet either vertically or horizontally. This allows for more advanced users to have both hands on the keyboard at all times, decreasing the time it takes to use the spreadsheet.

“Free” Key
Another popular use for the Scroll Lock key is as a “Free” key. What this means is that people will remap the key to perform other functions and macros. For example, if I wanted to create a New Incognito Window in Google Chrome, I could hit CTRL+SHFT+N or I could remap the whole shortcut to the Scroll Lock and have it be done in one press.

The Scroll Lock key is a vestige of an older time that has remained a standard since the dawn of the keyboard, and managed to carve out relevance, staying useful long after its original purpose expired. In a world of constantly evolving technology, where many feel the need to update their skill-sets to fit new fads and trends, we can all learn a lot from the Scroll Lock key, finding new and exciting ways to apply our talents.

RRAM: A Retrospective Analysis of the Future of Memory

Mechanisms of Memory

Since the dawn of digital computation, the machine has only known one language: binary.  This strange concoction of language and math has existed physically in many forms since the beginning.  In its simplest form, binary represents numerical values using only two values, 1 and 0.  This makes mathematical operations very easy to perform with switches. It also makes it very easy to store information in a very compact manor.

Early iterations of data storage employed some very creative thinking and some strange properties of materials.

 

IBM 80-Column Punch Card

One of the older (and simpler) methods of storing computer information was on punch cards.  As the name suggests, punch cards would have sections punched out to indicate different values.  Punch cards allowed for the storage of binary as well as decimal and character values.  However, punch cards had an extremely low capacity, occupied a lot of space, and were subject to rapid degradation.  For these reasons, punch cards became phased out along with black and white TV and drive-in movie theaters.

Macroscopic Image of Ferrite Memory Cores

Digital machines had the potential to view and store data using far less intuitive methods.  King of digital memory from the 1960s unto the mid-to-late 70s was magnetic core memory.  By far one of the prettiest things ever made for the computer, this form of memory was constructed with a lattice of interconnected ferrite beads.  These beads could be magnetized momentarily when a current of electricity passed near them.  Upon demagnetizing, they would induce a current in nearby wire.  This current could be used to measure the binary value stored in that bead.  Current flowing = 1, no current = 0.

Even more peculiar was the delay-line memory used in the 1960s.  Though occasionally implemented on a large scale, the delay-line units were primarily used from smaller computers as there is no way they were even remotely reliable… Data was stored in the form of pulsing twists through a long coil of wire.  This mean that data could be corrupted if one of your fellow computer scientists slammed the door to the laboratory or dropped his pocket protector near the computer or something.  This also meant that the data in the coil had to be constantly read and refreshed every time the twists traveled all the way through the coil which, as anyone who has ever played with a spring before knows, does not take a long time.

Delay-Line Memory from the 1960s

This issue of constant refreshing may seem like an issue of days past, but DDR memory, the kind that is used in modern computers, also has to do this.  The DDR actually stands for double data rate and refers to the number of times every cycle that the data in every binary cell is copied into an adjacent cell and then copied back.  This reduces the amount of useful work per clock cycle that a DDR memory unit can do.  Furthermore, only 64 bits of the 72-bit DIMM connection used for DDR memory are actually used for data (the rest are for Hamming error correction).  So we only use about half the work that DDR memory does for actual computation and it’s still so unreliable that we need a whole 8 bits for error correction; perhaps this explains why most computers now come with three levels of cache memory whose sole purpose is to guess what data the processor will need in the hopes that it will reduce the processor’s need to access the RAM.

DDR Memory Chip on a Modern RAM Stick

Even SRAM (the faster and more stable kind of memory used in cache) is not perfect and it is extremely expensive.  A MB of data on a RAM stick will run you about one cent while a MB of cache can be as costly as $10.  What if there were a better way or making memory that was more similar to those ferrite cores I mentioned earlier?  What if this new form of memory could also be written and read to with speeds orders of magnitude greater than DDR RAM or SRAM cache?  What if this new memory also shared characteristics with human memory and neurons?

 

Enter: Memristors and Resistive Memory

As silicon-based transistor technology looks to be slowing down, there is something new on the horizon: resistive RAM.  The idea is simple: there are materials out there whose electrical properties can be changed by having a voltage applied to them.  When the voltage is taken away, these materials are changed and that change can be measured.  Here’s the important part: when an equal but opposite voltage is applied, the change is reversed and that reversal can also be measured.  Sounds like something we learned about earlier…

The change that takes place in these magic materials is in their resistivity.  After the voltage is applied, the extent to which these materials resist a current of electricity changes.  This change can be measured and therefor binary data can be stored.

A Microscopic Image of a Series of Memristors

Also at play in the coming resistive memory revolution is speed.  Every transistor ever made is subject to something called propagation delay: the amount of time required for a signal to traverse the transistor.  As transistors get smaller and smaller, this time is reduced.  However, transistors cannot get very much smaller because of quantum uncertainty in position: a switch is no use if the thing you are trying to switch on and off can just teleport past the switch.  This is the kind of behavior common among very small transistors.

Because the memristor does not use any kind of transistor, we could see near-speed-or-light propagation delays.  This means resistive RAM could be faster than DDR RAM, faster than cache, and someday maybe even faster than the registers inside the CPU.

There is one more interesting aspect here.  Memristors also have a tendency to “remember” data long after is has been erased and over written.  Now, modern memory also does this but, because the resistance of the memristor is changing, large arrays of memristors could develop sections with lower resistance due to frequent accessing and overwriting.  This behavior is very similar to the human brain; memory that’s accessed a lot tends to be easy to… well… remember.

Resistive RAM looks to be, at the very least, a part of the far-reaching future of computing.  One day we might have computers which can not only recall information with near-zero latency, but possibly even know the information we’re looking for before we request it.

5 Microsoft OneNote Features that Make You a Productivity Machine

You may or may not know that all UMass students get access to Microsoft Office 365 for free! Sign up is super simple and can be found here: https://www.umass.edu/it/software/microsoft-office-365-education

Microsoft OneNote is a versatile note taking software that has transformed the way I participate in class and take notes. Maybe it can do the same for you!

Here are some of its features:

  1. Sync Notes on All Devices – Notes you take in class on your computer can appear on your phone and iPad almost instantly, and the other way around!  There is no need to worry about your laptop dying half way through class if you can pull your tablet out and continue right where you left off! To make it better, you don’t even need the app.  OneNote has a web browser version as well!  Now you can access and add to your notes on ANY device by logging in with your UMass account.  Study sessions can happen anywhere at any time.
  2. Complete worksheets and Syllabi Digitally – I present to you now my favorite feature of Microsoft OneNote: Insert File PrintOut.  Any assignments posted on Moodle can be inserted directly into your OneNote notebook, next to your notes, and completed right on your computer. Then you can print out the completed sheet.  Or how about putting the class syllabus and assignment schedule right in the front of your digital notes.  No more clogging up your downloads folder with ClassSyllabus(8).pdf!
  3. Hand Write Notes – Many laptops are touch and stylus enabled!  Digital notes are often criticized because studies show that hand writing information is a superior way to commit information to memory.  If you have a Microsoft Surface, An HP Spectre, A Lenovo ThinkPad or YogaBook, or a bunch of other models, you might be able to hand write notes directly into OneNote!
  4. Create To-Do Lists Right Next to Today’s Class Notes – Among the one million other ways OneNote lets you format your info is a to-do list.  After taking your class notes, make a home work to-do list right where you leave off.
  5. Share your notes with others – Finally, sharing your notes, to-do lists, work sheets, or even entire notebooks is super easy.  You can email specific pages, invite other OneNote Users to collaborate on the same page, and take screenshots and share them quickly, with no hassle!

 

I was always a traditional pen and paper student until I found Microsoft OneNote. Now all of my notes are taken either by typing or handwriting with my laptop’s stylus, and I can access them quickly on my phone, iPad, or any web browser.

Anti-Virus on Linux

Do I even need one?

Linux has many benefits that make many people want to use it as their main operating system. One of these benefits is strong security. This security mostly stems from the fact that programs are typically run as a user instead of as root (admin) so the damage a malicious program could do is somewhat limited. It also stems from Linux‘s very nature; it‘s an open source operating system to which many people contribute their time to improve and packages are not rushed by a central corporate authority before they are truly finished. Linux is not often targeted with malicious programs and the average user will likely never encounter a malicious program during their Linux use. Nevertheless, having an anti-virus that can scan both your Linux OS and a Windows installation, among other things, can be very useful.

What else?

While you yourself may not encounter malicious programs that will affect your Linux machine, you could encounter ones that could affect others’ machines. To that end, some anti-virus programs support scanning Windows based machines (as well as others on the same network), scanning E-mail attachments before you forward/send them to others, and any other files that you plan on sharing otherwise.

Okay, so what do I use?

There are many anti-virus programs available through whatever package manager you may be using. Some popular ones include:

  • ClamAV
  • AVG Antivirus
  • Avast! Linux Home Edition
  • Comodo Antivirus for Linux
  • BitDefender Antivirus

Installing these programs is very straight forward. Just go to your package manger or download and install them. Alternatively, you can refer to their respective websites and use terminal.

It should be noted that some anti-virus programs on Linux do not have a GUI (Graphical User Interface) so they must be accessed through terminal commands. When choosing an anti-virus program, make sure you‘re choosing one that has a a user interface that you‘re comfortable with.

You should now be well on your way to improving the security of both your system and those of the people around you. Farewell and browse safely!