Here is the video we’ve been working on for the past while. We completed it about a month ago, and then left the capital on an island circuit and haven’t had sufficient internet to load it. So in the meantime, we’ve added a bit from the work we’ve been doing throughout July. ( New videos already in the works….) We hope you enjoy!
Vanuatu is experiencing an infestation of Crown-of-thorns, an indigenous coral-eating starfish. Successful mitigation efforts by stakeholders have required all-out and sustained campaigns; however, such responses have been limited due to a shortage of resources and educational outreach. This project will fill gaps and help build local capacity. Phase 1: A multi-island circuit aboard RV Llyr to a) assess the COT infestation, b) engage with communities about controlling COT populations through sustainable fisheries practices, c) demonstrate simple culling techniques, d) share and produce videos about the issue. Phase 2: Facilitate emergency culling in key locations as COTs aggregate to spawn.
A major aggregation of COTs was first observed on the island of Efate in 2005. As the infestation advanced, large areas of coral reefs were destroyed. Local Scuba operators and village communities became active culling COTs from healthy reefs and developed several distinct and effective COTs-culling techniques, suitable to both snorkelers and divers. Their proactive efforts at COT removal combined with ongoing maintenance — over 6000 COTs were removed between November 2012 and May 2014 — stopped a frontal line in its tracks and resulted in the protection of important coral reefs. The Nguna-Pele Marine Reserve removed 10,000 COTs in 2010 and developed a project using COTs for fertilizer production.
These efforts were models of what can be achieved, however, the lack of integrated resources across stakeholders, including available boats and effective local education and communication, has impeded coherent management of the COTs infestation throughout Vanuatu. Secondary outbreaks have been documented throughout the islands, with a recent plague identified on Espiritu Santo. A recent culling by the Dept. of Fisheries (DoF) using village manpower resulted in 1500+ COTs removed over a matter of days.
The DoF is establishing a COTs database, enlisting villagers, dive operators and tourists in a citizen-science campaign to monitor reefs and report information. Additionally, the Tourism Office has created a new position to work specifically on the development and implementation of awareness campaigns for local communities. However, resources remain limited and outreach difficult. The proposed project can help fill critical gaps and build capacity.
On healthy reefs, Crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster Planci) help maintain biodiversity. When a reef is compromised by anthropogenic vectors and/or by natural events, the ecosystem is disrupted and less resilient — as well as more conducive — to a COTs infestation. It is difficult to stop aggregations once underway and generations of COTs may plague a region, reducing coral cover by 95% and disrupting the marine food chain. Potential exists for the collapse of reefs into rubble, dooming recovery and destroying vital coastline susrge protection.
Many stakeholders around Efate and nearby islands developed campaigns to cull COTs. With sustained efforts, some of these were successful in reducing COT impacts. However, with a shortage of resources in the country, it has been difficult to implement a comprehensive and sustained management program. Many important ingredients are sorely lacking: data on the outbreak; strategic and widespread coordination of culling campaigns; and engagement with villages on sustainable fishing practices that make the best use of local ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge to protect COT predators from overfishing and increase reef resilience.
Beginning in the Austral Springtime, COTs aggregate to spawn and commence more active feeding behaviors. Now, ahead of spawning season, is an important time to collect data, cull, and offer outreach to villages.
We seek funding for a 2 Phase project.
Phase 1: Transect
A circuit of reefs and islands aboard RV Llyr, with the following goals:
a) Data collection on COT presence and impact on reefs across the archipelago. Via SCUBA and snorkel, the team will produce video transects and Reef Check survey data for sites as well as COT population counts based on the quantity removed and/or destroyed on site. This information will benefit a new database being developed by the Fisheries department in their efforts to control the epidemic.
b) Community visits. Coral reefs provide many ecosystem services to the people of Vanuatu, from food security, to storm protection, and income from tourism. The COT outbreak threatens all this. The team will meet with community representatives to hear their perspectives, speak about COTs management and mitigation using adaptive ridge-to-reef methodologies (sustainable fisheries and agricultural practices, and coastal erosion control), and demonstrate culling techniques where indicated. These visits will be video documented and footage used for production of educational films in the Bislama language. Video has been shown to be one of the most effective tools to raise awareness in Vanuatu.
Phase 2: Emergency Response
An all-out assault with snorkelers and divers to remove COTs at the onset of spawning season. Properly equipped teams, including divers and snorkelers, can effectively cull large numbers of COTs at different depths as they aggregate to spawn. Such campaigns are costly, requiring boats, dive equipment and materials, and labor. In prior efforts, these costs have been absorbed by the stakeholders, and therefore campaigns have been limited in scope. Financial support will help reinforce and facilitate the expansion of the volunteer emergency response to renewed outbreaks in Efate and the plague in Santo during a critical period.
Peter Whitelaw, Secretary, Vanuatu Scuba Operators Association & Director of Sailaway Cruises.Peter is widely recognized as a local COT expert and coordinates volunteer mitigation efforts.
Sarah Graham, (MSc. Marine Ecology), Marine Biodiversity Project Officer, Vanuatu Dept of Tourism. Sarah works on the development and implementation of community awareness campaigns about COTs. Sarah joins RV Llyr as Marine Conservation Community Educator, diver and surveyor.
Vanuatu Department of Fisheries
Eric & Anne Simmons, Master Divers, producing Vanuatu Cruising Guide for the Dept. Of Tourism
This is one of the projects we’re developing this season in Vanuatu. The text is from a grant proposal we’ve submitted, so the wording is brief!
We’ve arrived in Vanuatu! Here’s the video of our passage from Fiji – it’s the first part of a web-series that will be updated regularly so keep an eye out!
One of my greatest pleasures as a maple farmer is the opportunity to range the forest in different seasons. After nearly two decades of farming these hills, they are deeply familiar to me and yet, with changing seasons, I can sometimes find myself “lost in the woods”, a delicious sensation that reminds me that this forest is alive and changing.
As I trek through the woods, pulling taps at the end of the harvest, I am struck by how many memories are stirred, what gifts and frights these woods have given me, how they’ve shaped my life. I recently read an essay in National Geographic by Garrison Keillor, storyteller and humorist (and host of Prairie Home Companion). It’s a personal geography, recounting his 70-some years of life in Minnesota, and in his unique poetic way, Keillor paints a portrait of a lived life through the places it has inhabited. I inhabit these woods, but I am just one small life form that does so and ultimately I am just passing through, a negligible being in an environment altered by so many forces through the ages.
It was on this spot in the North Bush, I recall, where many years ago my father-in-law and I stopped tapping on a still and grey winter day to sit on a rock and eat our lunch. The dog’s hackles rose and we looked up to see a large silent shape gliding across the nearby slope. It took us a moment to realize it was a wolf. I held tight to the dog’s collar but she seemed in no hurry to race after the animal, as if joining us in wonder at the rarity and majesty of this creature.
It was also in the North Bush one April that I once came upon a clutch of eggs – perhaps partridge – nestled in a small cave of roots at the base of a maple. Now, when pulling taps at the end of the harvest, I’m always careful to look at the tree base to see if I might ever find another such treasure.
On a sunny winter’s day last year in the Back Bush, Gavin and I were tapping trees and as we drilled, the sap was already running. We wrapped our arms around the trees, our faces close to the bark, and stuck out our tongues to catch the sweet dripping sap.
Earlier this winter, up high on the top of the ridge in the West Bush, a snowstorm was moving in fast. As I gently tapped the spile into the tree, mere inches from my hand a red squirrel darted from a crevice to scamper away from my intrusion. Startled, I stepped back and waited a few moments to watch it return to his shelter to escape the building winds. I came back to this tree in April, the woods so different with the onset of Spring, and wondered if I might spy the squirrel again as I removed the tap, but he was nowhere to be seen.
Down the Main Bush trail, or Tita Trail (named after a great aunt), three growing sons have flown countless times on their sleds, alternately paddling along by hand where the slopes flatten out, then zipping down the steep curves to come flying into the front yard and on down the driveway.
On the upper slopes of the North Bush there is a beautiful white quartz rock. In the Fall, the leaves create a tapestry on its hard white surface, in the winter, it disappears under snow, and in late Spring, it emerges again, with fresh soft mosses growing upon it, tempting my hand to rest on the green down that blankets its ancient and durable form.
Up high near the ridge, an escarpment of tumbled rocks is always a thrilling sight, no matter what the season. In winter, large ice flows cascade down its face creating a dramatic high alpine scene; in summer, thick green forest hides its caves and shelter the animals that seek refuge there.
Not everything brings pleasure in these woods.
I’ll never forget the forest tent caterpillar outbreak. The tiny invaders munched their way through the canopy of the entire Main Bush. Trunks vibrated with their marching bodies and one could hear their frass falling to the ground as they ate their way through the forest. By early June, the leaves were gone. The trees limbs and trunks were draped in webs, turning the forest into a haunted, dark and alien place.
And then there was the ice storm. A mid-December storm brought a thick coating of ice that wreaked havoc on the forest. Limbs encased in ice crashed down and whole trees ripped up from the earth. The sound alone was remarkable. When all was done, the devastation overwhelmed. Bringing in a crop in the short months to come seemed an impossibility. Good friends and neighbors came out in the snow and helped us lift fallen sap lines as best we could, allowing us to recover enough for the harvest. But we lost over 1000 taps, a fifth of our production, and it is only now that some of those trees can be tapped again. The debris in the woods still lies thick and many areas in the forest have changed their character where holes in the canopy opened up, allowing new types of undergrowth.
My livelihood depends upon this forest, but it has become much more than that. With each passing year, memories build and my life story becomes more deeply entwined with these trees, slopes and rocks.
0 degrees this morning! A long way from and an alien climate compared to the setting of my last blog entry. Our maple trees are nearly all tapped and we had two days of limited harvesting prior to this most recent cold spell. Long range forecast isn’t favorable for the maple harvest: we may be facing the 3rd short crop in a row. However, it’s a little soon to predict so we’ll do our best to have a tight line system with no vacuum leaks and we have been able to recover about 500 taps that were lost during the epic 2008 ice storm which will improve our yield.
Weather isn’t climate, so no season or event can be easily attributed to climate change. This may end up as a big crop, or next year’s might; even so, the knowledge we’ve gained about our forest from working with local foresters, and from following climate science, is enough to tell us that things are changing.
These realities connect me emotionally with farmers everywhere. While farming has always been subject to climate patterns and weather events, today the stories come fast and furious about threatened livelihoods, disappearing habitats, diminishing food security, and water shortages. As I stand before each tree in the forest, I find myself gauging its apparent health and capacity, considering its resilience in a time of growing stressors, and weighing the decision to tap it or not against the immediate risks to my family. At times, I deliberately try to saturate myself with this “me or the tree” angst because I believe these feelings lay at the root of so many sustainability problems. While I know that in the long run, survival can only happen with a “me AND the tree” approach, I can identify, for example, with all the fishers I’ve met on expedition aboard Llyr who’ve told me that they know the fish are disappearing from their reef, but they need to feed their families today. What can they do?
Now, as time approaches for us to go to Vanuatu, the setting where we’ve determined to work long term on ridge to reef conservation efforts as Island Reach, I’m reading about how communities are experiencing sea level rise, salt water intrusion into their fresh water sources, more frequent and devastating storms, the decline of their inshore fisheries, and much more. Focus is on building local capacity and resilience in the face of such changes. I’m glad I know, viscerally, that dilemma that often goes with harvesting: to act in the short term for immediate personal survival or to act for the longer term with the aspiration to protect an ecosystem, and thereby ensure real survival through a relationship of interdependency.
This is an article we are submitting to our local newspaper.
The wind and seas have calmed down today from the 25 knots and 15 foot ocean swells of yesterday. Those kinds of days make it challenging to move about the cabin, cook ,or sleep aboard our 53′ sailing research vessel Llyr. We are currently making passage from the remote island of Suwarrow in the northern Cook Islands in the central South Pacific to Vava’u in the Kingdom of Tonga. It is a 6 day passage and we are amusing ourselves with the technicalities of crossing the dateline: “if today is tomorrow, then what is yesterday?” It doesn’t take much to entertain you way out here in the middle of the ocean. RV Llyr and crew are well into our second season of work and study on coral reefs and coastal communities. This year finds us crossing the mighty, blue Pacific Ocean, from Panama to Fiji, over 6500 miles of ocean at a speed of about 6 to 7 mph!
RV Llyr, a steel sailing ketch, is the project boat of Berkshire Sweet Gold Maple & Marine and the Steele-McCutchen family. Right now, we have a crew of seven: our family of five, an intern from Four Rivers School in Greenfield, and a climate change speaker/ photographer from Minnesota. The purpose of our expedition is to link from ridge to reef, combining our interests and concerns about sustainable harvesting, small-scale economies, and the support for biological and cultural – or biocultural – diversity in a time of climate change.
We arrived in Panama right on the heels of completing our 2013 maple harvest in Heath to prep the boat for the Pacific. Our route this year has taken us through the remarkable Panama Canal, followed by a month-long offshore trip to the Marquesas in French Polynesia. From there, we traveled south the the low-lying coral atolls of the Tuamotus, and then westward to the Society Islands. We left French Polynesia from Bora Bora, bound for Suwarrow, an uninhabited island in the northern Cooks. Our final destination for 2013 is Fiji, where we’ll haul Llyr out of the water and “plant” her in a trench, there to sit out the cyclone season of the southern hemisphere (roughly October – April). In Spring 2014 our plan is to sail RV Llyr to Vanuatu in Melanesia where we hope to begin long-term work with coastal communities.
Above the waterline, we’ve been interviewing a variety of people – fishers, farmers, teachers, community leaders, scientists – to learn about their pressing concerns and their knowledge of these land- and seascapes. We’ve heard about overfishing by industrial fleets – mostly Asian, but American as well – that threaten the long term foodstocks of these traditionally seafaring people who still rely, to a large extent, on subsistence fishing. We’ve also heard that the local catch of reef fish is getting smaller, as are the sizes of individual fish caught. In some places, fishing livelihoods have almost entirely collapsed and they now have to import fish from other island groups. We’ve learned about the collapse of Black Pearl farming and the unemployment crisis. We’ve heard reports and witnessed the devastation to coral reefs from a multitude of impacts. We’ve visited islands that are mere feet above current sea level, where people will have no recourse except to relocate from their ancestral homes when sea levels rise, as forecast within the next decades.
Below the waterline, we’ve been studying coral reefs, using Reef Check survey methodologies, georeferenced GoPro video footage, and general observations. New to the underwater world of the South Pacific, our only benchmarks are the reefs of the Caribbean. Those reefs have suffered dramatically in the last 20 years, losing significant amounts of coral and fish biomass. While we know that many of the same stresses are present in the Pacific, we’ve held out hopes for healthier reefs given the higher degree of remoteness of these islands. So far, we’ve seen a few locations with colorful reefs and fish – including our first soft corals, which are unique to the Pacific –but overall our findings have led to a somewhat grim mood aboard Llyr. We’ve seen a lot of rubble, reefs overcome by algae, and too few fish. In areas of French Polynesia where the coral is virtually non-existent, the dive businesses construct a spectacle to satisfy tourists by establishing feeding stations that draw fish and sharks.
Coral reefs are arguably the most biodiverse habitats on the planet, along with rainforests, even though they cover only 1% of the Earth’s sea floor. They are home to one quarter of all marine fish species and function as nurseries for offshore fish, thereby feeding millions of people. Corals, to many people’s surprise, are actually animals: they hunt for food with stinging cells, farm by raising algae, and build skeletons from minerals in seawater that form protective barriers for islands. Corals have been around for 200 million years and have survived dramatic environmental changes during that time. Though highly adaptable and tough creatures, scientists now know that corals and the reef structures they build are disappearing at unprecedented rates, largely attributable to human factors. Local human assaults on reefs include nutrient runoff in the form of sewage, agricultural fertilizers and pesticides, physical damage, and overfishing. Global vectors include warming oceans which can lead to coral bleaching and now, a change in seawater pH due to the oceans absorbing too much of the atmospheric CO2 caused by humans burning fossil fuels. As the seawater becomes more acidic, the concentration of available calcium ions decreases. Calcium carbonates are necessary for building skeletons and shells for corals, certain “good” algae and other marine organisms.
Aboard Llyr, we have a lot more to learn about what is taking place in the oceans and in these local communities, but the stories we hear, and the scenes we are witnessing all indicate that a crisis is well underway. Ultimately, this crisis will affect not only reefs and South Pacific islanders, but people around the globe. Billions of years ago, life emerged from the oceans. Today, the oceans continue to make life on Earth possible: oceans are critical to our food chain; photosynthesizing plankton provide 50% of our oxygen; our weather is a product of the inextricable link between oceans and atmospheric circulation. These are just some of the incredible life-sustaining elements of the seas.
And lest this account portrays too much an image of people helplessly standing by while their world crumbles, there are many tales we can tell of people we’ve met who speak and act passionately about their lands and seas and the legacy for future generations. In a couple of short months, we will return to our farm and the forests of Heath. The ground will stop moving beneath our feet, and the familiar horizons of our hilltown will be welcome sights. We will continue to take inspiration from these encounters so that we may keep the oceans, the reefs and these communities in our sights as well, to help guide our actions on behalf of biocultural diversity from ridge-to-reef.
Suwarrow is a coral atoll in the northern Cook Islands. Declared a national park several decades ago, its status was threatened in the 90s by government plans to commercialize the atoll as a base for fish processing and a site for pearl farming. A Cook Islands conservation group, the Te Ipukarea Society or TIS, launched the Save Our Suwarrow campaign and were successful in preventing the development.
Today, the only residents of the atoll are two caretakers, Harry and Charlie. They spend about 6 months of the year living in Suwarrow where Harry handles immigration and biosecurity for arriving yachts and they oversee visitors and researchers to the atoll.
Immigration formalities in Suwarrow. Note the gift of Maple Syrup for Harry, who also serves as Park Ranger.
What’s biosecurity? In part, it refers to introduced biological threats to native habitats. For example, over the past two hundred years, rats arriving on vessels have driven more bird species to extinction than in any other region of the world. Suwarrow is considered and IBA, or “Important Bird Area”. Its importance as a breeding sanctuary for seabirds is enormous. It is home to 9% of the world’s population of Lesser Frigatebird, 3 % of the world’s Red-Tailed Tropicbird and a staggering 100,000 Sooty Tern!
Each morning, we’d watch as the terns flew overhead from their night roosts across the lagoon to their daytime island. We approached the small island by tender one day, being sure to keep a good distance, and were treated to the most incredible raucous symphony of bird song, and the sight of tens of thousands of terns swarming over the tiny, low lying island.
Some months prior to our arrival, Bird Life International and TIS had sponsored a trip to Suwarrow to undertake a rat eradication program. Worldwide, over half of all threatened birds are being driven to extinction by invasive species. In oceanic islands like Suwarrow, the figure is more like 75%. The rat eradication campaign in Suwarrow is critical to the survival of these incredible birds.
Birds are not the only protected species in Suwarrow. Sharks, which we saw in good numbers, are also protected in these waters. In fact, the Cook Islands has declared all of their Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) waters a shark sanctuary. This region is home to over 18 species of sharks, 15 of which are threatened or endangered. Pressures upon these populations come from fishing fleets seeking pelagic fish like Tuna, as well as shark fins for the Asian market. After the sharks are caught, their fins are removed and the sharks are thrown back into the sea where they soon drown. Its known that foreign fishing vessels shelter in Suwarrow’s lagoon when the caretakers are off island.
Sharks feeding inshore
The Cook Islands government has been very active in conservation projects. Further to the South begins the boundary for the Cook Islands Marine Park, established in 2012. Covering 1.1 million square kilometers and encompassing over half of the Cook’s EEZ, the park, once up and running, will be the largest one in the world. The government’s actions reflect a positive reframe available to Pacific Island states: rather than being considered small island states, they are, in fact, large ocean states. This is a much better description of the environment where most of their resources lay. Additionally, the Cooks government has made a commitment to 100% renewable energy by 2020! Pretty great!
Our stay in Suwarrow was cut shorter than we’d hoped by weather. While on the island, we managed to complete several Georeferenced GoPro Video Transects. We were surprised and dismayed by the overall state of coral and fish biomass, but more on that later.
Up close and personal with the coral
We are in Suwarrow, northern Cook Islands! We had a wild ride here with the most rugged weather we’ve had in over 5000 miles! Sustained 25-30 knot winds, gusting to 40 and 5 meter swell, though fortunately most often from our stern or back port side. At one point, we surfed down a wave at 13.5 knots!(that may not sound fast but for Llyr, that is FLYING!) Our overall speed for the trip was solidly over 6 knots.
The voyage turned really challenging in the last 24 hours. The waves became so big and fast (it isn’t only size that is an issue, but frequency and direction) that Brooks and Connor had to hand steer through the night since Llyr’s autopilot could not respond fast enough to the waves. They took 2-3 hour shifts. Arriving in Suwarrow in the dark at around 5am the winds were forecast to die, but instead picked up again to 35-40 knots in gusts. We weren’t sure we’d make the pass and even considered just heading on to Samoa, a trip of 5-6 days more. These passes into atolls can be pretty crazy, what with tides and reefs and funky currents.
We spoke by radio to a couple of boats in the anchorage who reassured us that we could do it, so we decided to give it a go.
We’d moved beyond the pass and had been hiding out in the lee of the island for a couple of hours to get out of the waves and wait for the light of day, so we had to turn back into them to return to the pass. We plunged bow-first into massive, short-period, five meter waves for over an hour, with winds gusting to 45 knots. Llyr’s bow buried in the seas as we made only 1 to 2 knots headway under full, roaring motor. Brooks wore ski-goggles and was clipped to a lifeline at the helm, working to counter forces of wind and wave and avoid broaching. Thankfully, I’d read about goggles somewhere and we’d remembered to bring a pair, since the waves regularly doused him! When we turned into the pass, it became a surf ride in at 8-11 knots, with Rowan on navigation, eyes glued to Llyr’s GPS track on our charts and google earth maps. Our relief upon entering the pass – which did turn out to be manageable despite the winds, dramatic standing waves, barely submerged reef structures and side shifting current– was immense. Hard to describe. Everyone hung in with only one case of seasickness (Gavin). Brooks and Connor were particularly magnificent at the wheel and kudos to Chuck for sitting up on deck with Brooks with a grin on his face while the waves crashed over them.
This is a spectacular place! Like the outer edge of the world that is never seen. Here is a google image, taken from Wiki. See that narrow pass on the northeast side?!
We arrived in Moorea after a short sail from Papeete and turned Llyr into Cook’s Bay, the first anchorage on the northern coast. We dropped anchor but were unable to get it set. A couple of other boats we know radioed to say they were headed over to the next bay where a cook out was to take place that night, so we gave up on getting a hold and headed further west. A brief motor brought us to Opunohu Bay where we could see most boats anchored at the mouth of the bay, just inside the fringing reef.The setting was beautiful. The jagged peaks of Mount Rotui loom over the bay.
Right onshore next to the anchorage, a day camp for local kids meant that each day, dozens of small sailing boats zoomed around Llyr, filled with happy kids, having fun tacking alongside us and shouting out their greetings.
The beauty and fun above water, however, was not to be matched below.
Nutrient Indicator Algae
We snorkeled the nearby reefs and found that one side of the pass was virtually dead, while the other showed only some small coral growth in shallow waters, although we did find a pretty cool wreck to explore. The situation with the reefs was grim. We needed answers as to what was going on and we were to find some of them on one of the fieldtrips we took on the island.
A) CRIOBE, the French acronym for The Insular Research Center and Environment Observatory field station.
At the head of Opunohu Bay, a paved road winds up the central valley of the island through pastureland. Right at its base lies this field station which welcomes French and international researchers. We stopped by briefly and were invited to attend a lecture where Canadian researchers were presenting on their studies of Pacific Northwest octopus! Chuck, meanwhile, had met up with the center director and had a brief exchange with him, which resulted in all of us returning the following week to learn about their work on FP reefs and tour the facility.
We met with biologist and center director, Dr. Yannick Chancerelle and Gilles Siu, a scientific diver and computer and math specialist. Here are some of the things we learned.
CRIOBE has been monitoring reefs in Moorea since 1971. Multiple factors led to the rubbly, dead reefs we had been seeing, the main one being a 2006 outbreak of Acanthaster (Crown of Thorns starfish) in the Society Islands, followed by a cyclone in 2010 which removed a lot of reef structure. As a result of these blows, according to Dr. the reef went from 40% coverage (which he indicated was good) to 0%. Current recovery is estimated to be about 5% on outer reefs (outer reefs fare better since they are more protected from inshore nutrient in the water). He indicated that it could take 10-15 years for recovery from such an assault. Other forces which slow recovery and that impact inshore reefs were listed as sewage, erosion from construction, agricultural run-of, and human contact with reefs.
While he didn’t initially include fishing as a vector impacting the reefs, at other points he related how overfishing is placing enormous pressure on the reefs. He reported that, unfortunately, there is no association of fishermen or any kind of collective organization among fishers, therefore there are no spokespeople from the local fishing community who can help provide oversight in marine protected areas.
Yannick introduced us to Gilles, a young Tahitian computer specialist who had recently secured a long-term contract with CRIOBE. Gilles was hired to set up live probes to measure oceanic variables and makes CRIOBE’s database available online. This led to learning fish counting and he is now employed by CRIOBE to take on fish surveys in several sites around the Pacific Ocean in addition to managing probes and the database. He had studied computers in France and had returned to Tahiti in the hopes of finding work. He reported that there aren’t many good job options for Polynesians with higher education and most of them remain abroad. He considered himself fortunate to find this work with CRIOBE and to be able to remain in Tahiti. (At the end of our meeting, he shared with us his deep-water photography: Spectacular images of creatures taken as deep as 100m!) He and Yannick showed us some of their data collection on a variety of reef measurements gathered from remote sensing buoys and grid surveys (among remote sensing measurements they were looking at temp, pH, etc). Interestingly, among there findings was some indication of warming waters (.33 degrees celcius in the last ten years.) They did not appear to find this significant and reported it was too short term for any conclusions to be drawn. In addition, the told us that their pH measurements – which would have interested us somewhat – were useless since the monitor was not sensitive enough and kept breaking down all the time.
We appreciated their taking the time to tour us around the facility and talk about their work. They seemed pretty enthusiastic about the idea of using Llyr for access to other island groups, but the timing was not right. Most of all, it gave Llyr’s crew a lot of food for thought about the nature of scientific research in the context of climate change, and about the problems of conservation where scientific knowledge and local knowledge have no common platform.
B) The Agricultural School (Lycée Agricole d’Opunohu (Opunohu Agricultural School), located 4 km further up the road from CRIOBE
The school system in FP is the French system. Among the islands, we’ve learned that children receive their primary education locally, but if they are to continue on, they usually have to leave home and board somewhere more centralized so that they can pursue further schooling. (more on this educational crisis in the Pacific later!)
The Lycee is FP’s high school for students interested in agriculture and draws students from across FP. It serves about 200 kids, ages14-18, roughly. Kids learn such skills as crop farming, horticulture, livestock farming, landscape design, and ways to create value-added products. We enjoyed some incredible ice cream made at the school using their own fruits and purchased a selection of exquisite jams, with flavors like nothing we’d tried before.
School was not in session, but during vacation periods the facility serves as a tourism destination, run by local staff, who also keep up with all the farming in the absence of the student farmers! Several (confusing) trails meander through the property where you can learn, with the assistance of a guidebook, about the various crops they grow and and how they can be used.
Given what we’ve seen and learned about farming and food in the Marquesas and Tuamotus, it was an interesting place to visit.
We made this visit with a trio of teens from another boat, and as we left the school, our boys joined them to hike further up the road to the Belvedere Lookout. They panoramic view of the valley and the two bays on either side of Mount Rotui looked dramatic in their photos.
The Hilton Resort
Our third fieldtrip took us over to the Hilton Resort! There, we attended a talk by Dr. Michael Poole on the dolphins and whales in French Polynesian waters. Michael Poole is a friend of Pamela and Alain of GEMM whom we met back in Rangiroa. Most of the attendees were cruisers (if I haven’t mentioned this elsewhere, this refers to people living on boats!) as the word about the talk had spread through the anchorage and one of the sailors had actually gone to graduate school with him; however, there were a couple of honeymoon couples present as well, those constituting the more typical audience at these weekly talks. Hilton, as part of their “Green and Socially Responsible” efforts, pays Dr. Poole to make these weekly presentations to their guests on marine mammals. We learned a lot of very interesting facts, including confirmation that what we saw during our sail along Nuku Hiva’s east coast, were indeed hundreds of rare, protected melon-headed whales! Overall, however, many of us were somewhat dismayed by a sense of greenwashing of the difficult issues facing marine environments. Clearly, this could be considered a limitation of the setting: Probably not too many honeymooners in Paradise want to hear gloom and doom about the oceans! A few of us yachties stirred things up with challenging questions and the talk went on a lot longer than typical, or so Dr. Poole indicated. Afterward, the conversations among Llyr’s crew focused on greenwashing and the conundrums of public outreach, as well as the challenges of obtaining financial support for conservation work while in the lion’s den.
Rangiroa, in the Tuamotus, is the 3rd largest atoll in the world (I couldn’t tell you where numbers 1 & 2 are; our guidebook doesn’t say!). We arrived after an overnight sail from Ahe, timing our entry into Tiputa Pass, one of two navigable passes on the atoll. If you miss the timing, the pass becomes a wild funnel of hard and fast current and large standing waves. We witnessed this wild energy under a full moon a couple of nights later, from the safety of shore.
The pass is famous for Bottlenose dolphins. Brooks dropped Connor and Rowan off near the pass exit to do a drift dive and they were surrounded by the dolphins. Such an encounter is a powerful and privileged one and the guys were pretty awestruck! Their experience was also shaped by facts we’d learned shortly after our arrival in Rangiroa. We visited the home of a small non-profit organization called GEMM (www.gemm.org) (in association with French and American universities), run by a couple named Pamela and Alain, that focuses on marine mammals. (The name GEMM translates as: Study Group for Marine Mammals.) Here in Rangiroa, they study the dolphins; later in the season they’ll head further west in FP, to Raiatae, where they’ll engage in humpback whale and spinner dolphin research. On this atoll, in additional to their scientific studies of the dolphins, they are embroiled, to varying degrees, with the 6 dive operators who sell dolphin encounters to tourists, and in some cases, promote touching the dolphins. While the researchers of GEMM fully appreciate and share the human interest in being in the water with these animals, they object to the lengths to which some operators go to provide a thrill for their customers. It is commonplace for people to think of dolphins as friendly mammals of the sea. Their “smile” misleads us into a sense of camaraderie, but as Pamela bluntly described: “They “smile” even in death!” Dolphins are wild animals, she stressed, and dive operators who promote and encourage the touching of wild animals are exploiting them for economic gain. While contact with dolphins is illegal in FP, there is little to no regulation or oversight way out here. During their 5 years of dolphin research, they have observed dolphin behavior changing as a result of these engagements and shared with us footage of divers touching dolphins and, in one case, being pushed around by a dolphin. They’re concerned about the long term behavioral effects, as well as with the potential for disease spread across species.
The tourism industry sells more wildlife encounters than just dolphins. Before leaving Rangiroa, we completed our Pacific Reef Check Ecodiver training, conducting a survey on a site known as “The Aquarium”: lots of fish and moderately healthy coral in patches. The dive boats feed the fish and eels at this site to entertain the tourists, so we were often surrounded by snappers and, on one trip, saw 4 large Moray eels coming out to take advantage of the easy meal. It felt somewhat like a zoo.
A short sail of a few hours took us across the lagoon where we spent two days anchored in pale blue, calm waters, surrounded by black tip sharks. At one point, we counted 15 circling Llyr! Black tips are fairly shy, so we felt safe in assuming that tour boats must feed them on this side of the atoll as they do on the other, making them approach boats more regularly.
We left Rangiroa on a calm afternoon, making our way out of the pass and circumnavigating the atoll, headed for Tahiti, and the capital of Papeete. We commented on what a pleasant sail we were having and laughed about how that was sure to change. And sure enough, it did. By 9 in the evening, the winds had climbed up to about 30 knots with very confused seas, once again pitching the boat side to side and making for a rough and uncomfortable sail.
Our trip to Papeete was about 36 hours (two nights and a day) bringing us into the capital early in the morning. Tahiti juts out of the ocean in tall jagged spires and sloping mounts. It is surrounded by a barrier reef which has protected the shoreline from storms and provided calm waters for boats. Approaching Papeete, the reef is visible only as a breaking wave. We entered the pass and motored along the inner waterway between the shoreline and reef to Marina Taina, our first marina since Panama (and our first real showers in over two and a half months!!)
We didn’t get much time to travel around Tahiti; instead, we were busy with provisioning, cleaning and repairs, doing a little visiting with other boats, and getting ready for the arrival of Benjamin, a friend and high school senior who will be interning with us for the next two months. Our few trips in and out of town by bus made us aware of the limited public transportation system and the heavy reliance on private automobiles. We hadn’t seen people or cars in this concentration for a long time!
While we were not able to get underwater during our time in Tahiti, Chuck had the opportunity to make a couple of dives with one of the local operators and came back to report dead coral and lots of algae.
With Ben on board, we were eager to leave Tahiti and head to Mo’orea, hoping for better waters, and the possibility of getting Gavin certified as a SCUBA diver. Reports of an incoming weather system with lots of wind also required us to leave the mooring ball at Marina Taina. Mo’orea is only about 15 miles from Papeete; we were aiming for Cook’s Bay (named after that sailor who preceded us there by a few hundred years).
Here is how the Lonely Planet Guide describes diving in Mo’orea: “Mo’orea is one of French Polynesia’s main underwater playgrounds, which is no surprise considering its high visibility and clean waters. The underwater scenery is every bit the equal of what’s on land: you can dive sloping reefs and go nose-to-nose with sharks, rays and numerous reef species.”
Here is what we have seen so far: lots of dead coral and algae.
At the nearby Hilton, the iconic over-the-water bungalows are surrounded by classic turquoise blue waters, but in between the white sand patches there is mainly dead coral and choking algae. While we’ve yet to dive the outer reef, we’ve heard it isn’t much better, and the dive operators, as in Rangiroa, are resorting to selling impressive dive experiences by feeding the sharks and rays so that they gather around in large congregations. Fisheries are reportedly finished in Mo’orea. We’ve been told that most fish now come from the Tuamotus and Marquesas, as we had observed there. We have yet to hear local accounts of the disappearance of the fishing industry in Mo’orea.
If the reefs aren’t growing and adding new skeleton aloft, storm surge will overwhelm the reef. Add to that sea level rise, and, well, these shorelines are facing a difficult future. (We’ll write more on the complex nature of coral reefs in a future posting.) We have a meeting planned with some scientists at one of the environmental research institutes here in Mo’orea: CRIOBE (www.criobe.org) and hope to learn a lot more about what has happened and is happening to these reefs.
I am reminded that when I last left off with this blog in Ahe, I was wondering how heading towards more touristed settings might affect our perceptions of environmental conditions. A picture is developing, and it isn’t pretty. Our human appetites are immense, and those of us with a few resources are eager to consume at a scale which is not sustainable. That goes for us aboard Llyr as well. Our footprints lie heavy on the planet. I’ve read that if everyone consumed like the average westerner, we’d need about 7 planets to provide for us! Out here, I’m feeling it! This planet is breaking under our weight. Whether we’re “consuming” electronics from Best Buy, or a broccoli that has traveled from France to the Tuamotus, or even an aesthetic experience on a beach or a woods hike, we can’t seem to avoid heavy tread. I’ve heard that Mount Everest is littered with oxygen bottles left behind by climbers. Today I read that the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute has a long term study (22 years) with over 18,000 hours of footage from deep sea ROVs (remotely-operated vehicles) showing human -made garbage everywhere off the coast of California, as deep as 13,000 feet.
While I work to be a strong advocate and help raise awareness, I’m not sure how effectively I can lighten my load or that of my children. I’m not sure if we, as a species, can do what it takes to halt the 6th wave of extinction that we humans have set in motion.