South Africa divestment

Lauren Yelinek, South Africa Divestment

Apartheid: n. An official policy of racial segregation promulgated in the Republic of South Africa with a view toward promoting and maintaining white ascendancy.

–          From “South African Education Week – A Struggle Against Apartheid”  at UMass Amherst

Introduction

Systems of apartheid had existed in colonized South Africa for the better part of the 20th century.  This racist National Party, elected into formal power in 1948, promoted economic, political and social segregation on the basis of race: the white minority controlling the capabilities of the oppressed Black majority.  By the mid-1970s, the severe discrimination had become an international concern.  In response to the increasing repression, a divestment movement began, with economic pressure thought to be the most significant way to diminish the profits that kept the ruling class in power.  Here at UMass – where there had been a longstanding awareness of apartheid issues since the 1960s – the April 1st Coalition aimed to enforce the university’s divestment policy and contribute to the end of an international social injustice within the larger student divestment movement in the 1980s.

 

Apartheid South Africa

Although systems of apartheid existed throughout sub-Saharan Africa, South Africa had become a focal point in the growing anti-apartheid movement by the 1960s.  The National Party had taken control over the South African government in 1948, having eliminated “coloured voting” and achieved exclusively white voting by 1969 (“The National Party and Apartheid”).  Apartheid South Africa was marked by the most oppressive and racist domestic policies, with the white majority inhibiting economic, political or social power to any minority groups, but especially black South Africans. The population was divided into four racial categories: white, black, Asian, and “coloured”.  Legislation was both a medium of and result of white privilege; however, while Asians and “coloureds” experienced repression, the most severe racial and socioeconomic discrimination was reserved for the black majority.

A number of laws and pieces of legislation were key in maintaining this system, which essentially treated non-whites (especially blacks) as subhuman.  The Population Registration Act mandated the registration and classification of South Africans by race, while the Abolition of Passes Act required all black Africans over the age of sixteen to be fingerprinted and carry a passbook (“South African Education Week”).  These passbooks were to be carried at all times, recording identification, employment, permits to enter white areas, and family status.  Political or radical movements of any kind were often subdued with other legislation; namely, the Terrorism Act and the Internal Security Act (“The National Party and Apartheid”).  The Terrorism Act allowed for indefinite detention without charge or trial.  Perhaps more significantly, the Internal Security Act, “allowed the preventive detention of persons alleged to be engaged in activities which could endanger the security of the state, and authorizes ‘banning’ of persons without charge or trial…Banned persons were restricted to given areas, may not be present at a gathering of two or more people, speak publicly, have writings published, or be publicly quoted” (Ibid.).  Mobilization of the population would prove difficult, especially under this oppressive legislation.

By 1968, the plan of “Grand Apartheid” had been instituted and brought to fruition, “emphasizing territorial separation (of races) and police repression” (“A History of Apartheid in South Africa”).The final arrest and imprisonment of Nelson Mandela in 1964 marked the beginnings of a more widespread international interest in apartheid.  Mandela, a known anti-apartheid activist in the National Party’s now-banned African National Congress, had written anti-apartheid literature that had begun to be widely distributed abroad.  Groups such as Amnesty International, FOCUS Magazine, the Chronicle of Higher Education, and others not only featured Mandela, Desmond Tutu, and other South African activists, but had begun to publish their own findings regarding the state of black South Africans under apartheid.

 

International Awareness

With the increasing awareness of the apartheid regimes came more outspoken activism internationally.   With the increasing violence and militancy of the apartheid system, international awareness and outspokenness emerged.  In fact, a number of UN resolutions were passed.  Early resolutions condemned the racist policies, and called on member nations to consider restricting economic and military relations with South Africa.  Later resolutions called or embargos on weapons and machinery and materials used to make weapons.  The US complied with this in 1963 (“Apartheid South Africa”).  By 1973, the UN General Assembly declared apartheid, “a crime against humanity” (Ibid.).  Resolution 3I/6K requested that member nations “consider steps to achieve the cessation of further foreign investments in South Africa” (Ibid.)

This sense of awareness and social responsibility to respond to apartheid first emerged in the United States with the Sullivan Principles.  In 1971, Reverend Leon Sullivan joined the board of directors at General Motors, then the largest employer of black South Africans under apartheid (“The Sullivan Principles”).  In response to the national policy of “Grand Apartheid”, the Sullivan principles were created, calling for social, economic, and racial equality in the workplace. The principles addressed non-segregation in the workplaces, equal and fair employment practices, equal pay, equal opportunities for promotion, training, and improving the working conditions and quality of life for all nonwhite employees (“The Sullivan principles”).

While great in theory, many critiqued the Sullivan principles as insufficient in working against apartheid.  Basically, these were lofty goals that would not only be difficult to enforce from a world away, but essentially useless without political change.   Companies could agree to comply with the principles to maintain an outward anti-apartheid image without actually having any impact on the system at all.  By 1985, “About one hundred and fifty companies were current signatories, with 26 slated to sign on [to the Sullivan Principles].  But most protesters in the United States seemed to scorn the Sullivan Principles and turned to divestment campaigns” (Kristof, 1985).

A more dramatic approach to changing the system of apartheid was divestment.  Divestment is essentially “uninvestment”.  The divestment movement encouraged an institution’s removal of stock from companies doing business in South Africa.  Colleges and universities, local and state governments, and fellow companies wanted stock sold because they saw themselves as partial owners of companies working within a racist, oppressive political system there.  In 1977, the UMass Board of Trustees made the decision to remove all stock from companies doing business in South Africa (Eaton, 1985).    In other words, the administration committed to a policy of “total divestment.”

Divestment was both celebrated and criticized.  For many institutions, divestment was seen as the most direct form of disapproval of the South African government.  With “the primary goal [being] to encourage companies to leave South Africa and thereby pressure its government to end the policy of apartheid,” proponents of divestment saw the dollar as the most direct was to undermine the economic and political foothold of the National Party (Kristof, 1985).  However, critics maintained that the presence of American companies resulted in an attempt at “enlightened racial policies” – essentially, the Sullivan Principles (Ibid.)  Some went further, saying that even if primary investors in South Africa withdrew economic support, hundreds of American companies still sold products to the country.  Here, however, is where international codes of conduct and potential political weight could have come in to play.  By 1985, the United Nations had encouraged a number of sanctions against the buying and selling of products to South Africa, and a number of pieces of legislation were on the table in Congress by 1985.  Most notable was the Gray-Kennedy legislation, which “would ban all new bank loans and computer sales to the South African government and at least temporarily halt all new United States investment in South Africa…along with annual reviews of South Africa pertaining to the dismantling of apartheid as a social, economic, and political system” (Business Week 1985: Number 2892).

Despite contention in congress and amongst corporate entities, divestment was a growing trend both in the local and state politics and the educational realm.  In July 1984 the Boston City Council voted to remove all city money from lenders engaged with transactions in South Africa, and divest all stockholdings in US companies operating there – affecting roughly $10 to $12 million (American Committee on Africa).  Approximately $400 million in public funds was affected with divestment measures in the states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nebraska, and Maryland (Ibid.).  Moreover, universities had become increasingly involved in applying economic pressure, with over forty now either fully or partially divesting and impacting about $175 million in South Africa (Ibid.)

 

 

 

 

UMass Activism: The April 1st Coalition and the “Divest 9”

 

Coinciding with the American Committee on Africa’s Student Anti-Apartheid Movement, UMass students’ April 1st Coalition took action after its findings that the divestment policy was not being adhered to by the UMass administration. April and October of 1985 were designated as the “Weeks of Action” in what had now become a national movement across American college campuses.  Comprised of approximately four hundred students, the April 1st Coalition occupied the vice chancellor’s office on April 1, 1985 (Eaton 1985).  The coalition had sought nine demands, including retaining student control of the Campus Center and Student Union, maintaining a thirty-two student board of governors, creating a task-force for the student activities board, and fighting the Universal Resource Fee being proposed for dorm maintenance.  Most significantly, “the April 1st coalition demanded the immediate divestment of all UMass stocks in companies doing business in South Africa, [with] the battle over this issue being partially won by students” (Ibid.).  The coalition claimed that they had discovered that the UM administration was not adhering to its 1977 policy of total divestiture.  They claimed it still held roughly $177,000 in stock in Proctor and Gamble Co. (home products), the Foxboro Co. (industrial equipment), and Thomas & Betts Corp (electrical equipment) (Langfur 1985).

 

After occupying the Vice Chancellor for Student Affairs Office for four days – with roughly fifty students staying for the duration – the majority of the demands were met and no disciplinary was taken against “the peaceful group”.   The administration agreed to student demands to further investigate adherence to the 1977 Board of Trustees decision to  fully divest from companies, such as IBM, doing business in South Africa (Ibid.).   Most significantly, the Commission of South African Investments was formed – comprised of five students, five faculty members, and one administration representative – to further investigate and inform the administration if steps were to be taken to change their policy.  Interestingly, Dean of Students William Field supported the action taken by the protestors, saying, “Any protest that requires people to stop what they’re doing and think is most definitely effective.  I think the chancellor has been conscious and cooperative in dealing with these things; in that way, again, they are being very effective” (Ibid.).

Exactly one month later, action ensued, with thirty-two protestors arrested in UMass Treasurer Robert Brand’s office.  This arrest of twenty men and twelve women made this the largest group arrested on the UMass campus since the thirty-five arrests during the Whitmore occupation protesting the Vietnam War in 1968 (Koester).  About two hundred students marched into the treasurer’s office in response to the findings of the Commission on South African Investments of UMass – a group of ten students, faculty and administrators created in response to the April 1st Coalition’s occupation one month earlier (Ibid).  A report issued by the commission not only uncovered continued investment in apartheid South Africa, but also “recommended that the university sell its holdings in Foxboro Company, Proctor & Gamble Co., JP Morgan & Co., and Bankers Trust New York Corp. because, it concluded, these investments violate the trustee policy of divestment from companies operating in South Africa” (Koester and McRory 1985).  They estimated that UMass had $351,463 worth of stock invested in these companies and lenders (Ibid.).  Initially, the commission had set a May 8th, 1985, deadline for UMass president David Knapp, but upon these findings the protestors claimed, “We’ve waited 8 years since the divestment policy was instituted in 1977, and ‘immediately’ to us means now”(Ibid.).

Some of the protestors had been involved in the April 1st Occupation’s sit-in, while others were members of the Commission or simply felt compelled to participate in the march on the office.  It is interesting to note that while their actions were indeed linked to the national student anti-apartheid movement, this was a matter of students pursuing a cause on their own accord and with the own resources they had fought to use (i.e., the Commission on South African Investment) rather than acting in solidarity with a larger organized effort.  Those protesting had the singular goal of seeing the administration carry out the decision and agreements they had made regarding divestment.  As protestor Matt Shakespeare, “Our duty is to have them accelerate divestment.  Each day that investment continues is a black spot on the university” (“Police Arrest 32…”).  Economics professor and commission member Samuel Bowles claimed, “We commission members have come to the conclusion, I am sad to say, that this university does continue to have money invested in South Africa…I don’t want to have this university associated in any way with that brutal and racist regime” (Ibid.).

Chancellor Duffey called the demand to sell the stocks immediately “unreasonable”, and all of the students faced disciplinary action.  Arrests were made at the May 1 protest because” business at the office ‘came to a halt’, whereas the sit-in [on April 1st] permitted operations to go on.  They were arraigned on trespassing charges, and one disorderly conduct charge (for trying to block the bus that was taking away already-arrested students).  The “Divest Nine” planned to present a “necessities” defense, saying that their findings and protest were needed to inform both the administration and the student population of what they found was still going on in relation to South Africa (“the ‘Divest 9’ Go To Trial”).  A “Divest Nine” Defense Fund was created, soliciting financial and moral support from fellow students, faculty, family, and local communities and politicians (Ibid.).  However, charges were eventually dropped.  The administration seemed to realize that they should not be arresting students concerned with preventing human suffering, in addition to the fact that local communities and the UMass community had begun to rally around their cause – which was, by now, a popular international issue.

 

 

Conclusions

By the fall of 1985, the Student Anti-Apartheid Newsletter boasted, “Wave of Divestments Follows Spring Protests”:

Campus protest this spring has led to the most intense period of divestment actions ever by US colleges and universities.  Since [April], sixteen schools have either partially or totally divested their South Africa-linked holdings – affecting a total of $39.4 million held in U.S. corporations and banks.  Since 1977, fifty-seven schools have now taken some divestment action affecting $267 million in all.

 

Ultimately, the pressure applied by universities through divestment encouraged companies themselves to put pressure on the South African government.  Divestment’s threat to the profit margins of these American corporations encouraged the companies themselves to apply pressure to the South African government to operate in a socially just way.  Understanding the limitations of political power, students were able to work on a micro level by applying pressure to their own administrations to impact a social injustice a world away.

Anti-apartheid activist and Nobel Peace prize winner Desmond Tutu said, “There is no greater testament to the basic dignity of ordinary people everywhere than the divestment movement of the 1980s.”  Despite geographic and political limitations, students across the United States – and here at UMass – found a way to transcend these boundaries and work within their means to achieve social change.  By utilizing multiple levels of power and knowledge, the student anti-apartheid movement was able to work within the larger divestment movement that began with Leon Sullivan; in turn, the April 1st Coalition was able to function in solidarity with the larger student anti-apartheid movement.  Furthermore, protestors continued to investigate and interrogate the administration to follow up with their agreements.  And by the end of 1985, the UMass administration was adhering to a policy of total divestiture, with a total of $1.4 million stocks removed from business with investments in South Africa (“College Divestment” 1985).  Like the Civil Rights movement, watershed legislation often had to be enforced with direct action; the case of divestment on the UMass campus follows this trend of citizens forcing the implementation of the change they seek.

 

References

 

“Apartheid South Africa”.  SouthAfrica.To.  Retrieved on April 19, 2011 from

www.southafrica.to/history/Apartheid/apartheid.htm

 

 

*Brown, Greg.  “Whitmore Sit-In Ends in Compromise.” The Daily Collegian. Radical Student

Union: South Africa – Sweden: Box 15, Folder 1. 45/80/R1. Special Collections and

University Archives, University Libraries, University of Massachusetts Amherst.

 

 

BusinessWeek. “Fire on Campus, Tremors in the Boardroom”. 1985. Business Week – Social

Issues: number 2892.  29 April 1985. Radical Student Union: South Africa – Sweden: Box 15, Folder 4. . 45/80/R1.  Special Collections and University Archives, University Libraries, University of Massachusetts Amherst.

 

 

*Chronicle of Higher Education. 1977.  “More Universities Curb Financial Interests in South

Africa”. Radical Student Union: South Africa – Sweden: Box 15, Folder 4. . 45/80/R1.

Special Collections and University Archives, University Libraries, University of

Massachusetts Amherst.

 

 

“College Divestment”.  The Investor’s Responsibility Research Center.  Radical Student Union:

South Africa – Sweden: Box 15, Folder 4. . 45/80/R1. Special Collections and University

Archives, University Libraries, University of Massachusetts Amherst.

 

 

Eaton, Susan.  1985.  “Student Take-over Ends”.  Amherst Bulletin.  10 April, 1985:  Pp. 22-23.

Radical Student Union: South Africa – Sweden: Box 15, Folder 1. 45/80/R1.  Special

Collections and University Archives, University Libraries, University of

Massachusetts Amherst.

 

 

Encyclopedia Britannica. “The National Party.” Eb.com. Retrieved on 20 April, 2011 from

www.britannica.com/EBChecked/topic/555568/South-Africa/260109/The-National-         Party-and-Apartheid

 

Flyer:  “South African Education Week: The Struggle against Apartheid.” Published by the

April 1st Coalition. Special Collections and University Archives, University Libraries,

University of Massachusetts Amherst.

 

Koester, Laura and Anne McCrory. 1985.  “Police arrest 32 during sit-in: Protesters cite failure

to divest”.  The Collegian.  2 May, 1985.  Radical Student Union: South Africa –

Sweden: Box 15, Folder 4. . 45/80/R1.  Special Collections and University Archives,

University Libraries, University of Massachusetts Amherst.

 

 

 

Kristof, Nicholas D. 1985. “U.S. Companies Cut Some South Africa Links”. New York Times. 4

April 1985. Radical Student Union: South Africa – Sweden: Box 15, Folder 4. 45/80/R1.

Special Collections and University Archives, University Libraries, University of

Massachusetts Amherst.

 

Langfur, Hal.  1985.  “Plan to talk ends UMass sit-in.” Hampshire Gazette. Radical Student

Union: South Africa – Sweden: Box 15, Folder 4. 45/80/R1.  Special Collections and

University Archives, University Libraries, University of Massachusetts Amherst.

 

 

Sohenburg, Nina E. “Columbia, UMass protests continue sitting-in, fasting for divestment.” The

Harvard Crimson: 4 April 1985.  Radical Student Union: South Africa – Sweden: Box 15,

Folder 4. 45/80/R1.  Special Collections and University Archives, University Libraries,

University of Massachusetts Amherst.

 

*Student Anti-Apartheid Movement Newsletter.  Fall 1984.  American Committee on Africa.

Radical Student Union: South Africa – Sweden: Box 15, Folder 1. 45/80/R1.  Special

Collections and University Archives, University Libraries, University of Massachusetts    Amherst.

 

*Swan, Rhonda.  1985.  “Trade Unions Help Blacks:  Movement has force against Apartheid”.

The Collegian. 11 November, 1985: Pp. 1. Radical Student Union: South Africa – Sweden: Box 15, Folder 1. 45/80/R1.  Special Collections and University Archives, University Libraries, University of Massachusetts Amherst.

 

“The Divest 9 Go To Trial”.  Divest Nine Defense Fund. Radical Student Union: South Africa –

Sweden: Box 15, Folder 4. 45/80/R1.  Special Collections and University Archives,

University Libraries, University of Massachusetts Amherst.

 

“The History of Apartheid in South Africa. Stanford.edu. Retrieved on 19 April, 2011 from

www.cs.students.stanford.edu/~cale/cs201/apartheid.hist.html

 

“The Sullivan Principles.”  Retrieved on 20 April, 2011 from

http://muweb.marshall.edu/revleonsullivan/principled/principled.htm

 

 

The Reverend Leon Sullivan Foundation. “The Sullivan Principles”. Retrieved on 20 April, 2011

from http://www.thesullivanfoundation.org/about/global_sullivan_principles

 

 

*Weinburg, Neal and Marcia Bloomburg. “UM chancellor says stock sale not useful”.

Hampshire Gazette.  Radical Student Union: South Africa – Sweden: Box 15, Folder 4.

45/80/R1.  Special Collections and University Archives, University Libraries,

University of Massachusetts Amherst.

 

 

 

 

*Article retrieved from UMass Library archives – missing dates, authors, and/or publishers are because the copies of these original documents may not have provided complete publication information.

 

 

167 thoughts on “South Africa divestment

  1. Some basic things you need to do during installation are: setup the
    name of your proxy, create the user accounts and passwords and assign the
    IPs to each account. The best use of rating system found in field of research.
    Part of the problem is that there are some terms
    that are misused because the user doesn’t fully understand what they’re blogging about,
    and in some cases there are multiple terms describing one thing.

  2. May I simply say what a comfort to uncover someone that actually knows what they are discussing on the internet. You definitely understand how to bring a problem to light and make it important. More and more people need to read this and understand this side of the story. I was surprised that you’re not more popular because you certainly have the gift.|

  3. I think that everything posted made a great deal of sense.

    But, consider this, what if you were to write a killer headline?
    I mean, I don’t wish to tell you how to run your website,
    but suppose you added a title that grabbed a person’s attention?
    I mean South Africa divestment | radicalumass’s blog is kinda boring.
    You might peek at Yahoo’s home page and see how they write
    news titles to get viewers to click. You might add
    a video or a picture or two to grab readers interested about what you’ve got to say.

    In my opinion, it could make your website a little bit more interesting.

  4. of course like your web site but you have to take a look at the spelling on quite a few of your posts. Many of them are rife with spelling problems and I in finding it very bothersome to inform the reality then again I will definitely come back again.

  5. Hey very cool website!! Guy .. Excellent .. Superb .. I’ll bookmark your site and take the feeds also…I’m glad to find a lot of helpful information here in the publish, we need work out extra strategies on this regard, thank you for sharing.

  6. I used to be suggested this website by way of my cousin. I’m no longer positive whether or not this publish is written by way of him as nobody else recognise such exact about my problem. You are incredible! Thanks!|

  7. Nice weblog here! Also your website quite a bit up very fast! What host are you using? Can I get your associate hyperlink in your host? I desire my website of roids loaded up as quickly as yours lol

  8. I just like the valuable info you provide to your articles. I will bookmark your weblog and test again right here regularly. I’m relatively certain I’ll learn lots of new stuff right right here! Best of luck for the following!|

  9. Woah! I’m really digging the template/theme of this website. It’s simple, yet effective. A lot of times it’s very difficult to get that “perfect balance” between user friendliness and visual appeal. I must say you’ve done a excellent job with this. Additionally, the blog loads extremely fast for me on Firefox. Superb Blog!|

  10. I was extremely pleased to discover this site.
    I need to to thank you for your time due to this
    fantastic read!! I definitely really liked every little bit of it and I have
    you book marked to check out new stuff in your site.

  11. Appreciating the time and energy you put into your blog and
    in depth information you provide. It’s nice to come across a blog every once in a while that isn’t the same outdated rehashed information. Fantastic read!
    I’ve saved your site and I’m including your RSS feeds to my Google account.

  12. What’s Taking place i am new to this, I stumbled
    upon this I’ve found It absolutely helpful and it has helped me out loads.
    I’m hoping to give a contribution & assist different users like
    its helped me. Great job.

  13. The proceeds of selling your older car can go to
    the operations of the charity like giving food or clothing to the family
    that they supported. Strict standards and excellence in service is what made Cullitons the premiere limo service of choice for thousands of Torontonians as well as visiting guests from
    all over the world. Access Free Online Maps via Wi – Fi or 3G network, such as Google Map.

  14. Pretty component of content. I simply stumbled upon your blog and in accession capital to
    say that I acquire in fact loved account your weblog posts.
    Anyway I will be subscribing in your feeds or even I fulfillment you get entry to
    consistently quickly.

  15. Contamos con el certificado otorgado por el departamento de
    formación y soporte técnico del conjunto Deacero, lo que nos certifica que nuestra empresa cumple con los requisitos necesarios para el manejo,
    comercializacoón y también instalación de la Reja Deacero.

  16. He prefers to talk about ancient history, archeology, fashionable vacation resorts, luxury holidays turkey, luxury istanbul traveling,
    bests of Turkey, his monitorings, store household hotels,
    typical turkish cuisine, istanbul shopping … etc

  17. Unbiased opinions from customers could be a good idea!
    There’s the 60 days money back guarantee, so I decided to have what you eat your meals.
    When considered more important and a balanced diet.
    One-hundred-and-four hydrogens and go to this site six oxygen atoms.
    So the maths is just not in the body through body and are
    everywhere. And, even if you did your first one.
    As with any natural light, low-intensity weight-loss activity that can keep your fat free protein supplement.

  18. After exploring a handful of the articles on your web site, I truly like your way
    of blogging. I added it to my bookmark site list and will be checking back in the near
    future. Take a look at my web site too and let me know how
    you feel.

  19. observez un hack Call of Duty Black Ops 3 aujourd’hui. Il s’agit d’un hack qui
    a été édifie dernièrement. Le hack pour Call of Duty bo 3 est supportable sur la totalité des consoles.

    Voici les visibles fonctionnalités de ce hack call of duty black ops 3
    fr :
    – Un Modd menu terminés
    – Potentialité de terminé des Lobby avec son voisinage
    – Avoir accès à tous déguisements et accessoires des équipements
    – Changer son niveau à tous dates avec le Level changer
    – Développement super simple en machinale avec l’Auto Installer
    impliqué
    – Zéro risque d’être bannis
    – Fonctionnalités complémentaires ajoutées à toute
    mise à jour

    Le hack call of duty black ops 3 vous fournira un gameplay fiable sans avoir la crainte d’être bannis grâce à ses fonctionnalités
    100% introuvables. Le hack call of duty black ops 3 est disponible pour tous sur toutes
    les consoles.

    tag
    hack call of duty black ops 3
    call of duty black ops 3 hack
    hack bo3
    hack bo3 fr
    call of duty black ops 3 hack fr
    call of duty black ops 3 hack ps4
    call of duty black ops 3 hack ps3
    call of duty black ops 3 hack xbox one
    call of duty black ops 3 hack 360
    call of duty black ops 3 hack pc
    hack call of duty black ops fr
    hack call of duty black ops ps4
    hack call of duty black ops ps3
    hack call of duty black ops one
    hack call of duty black ops 360
    hack call of duty black ops pc
    bo3 hack
    bo3 hack fr
    hack black ops 3
    hack black ops 3 fr
    black ops 3 hack
    black ops 3 hack fr
    hack call of duty black ops gameplay
    hack call of duty black ops gameplay fr
    call of duty black ops 3 hack gameplay
    call of duty black ops 3 hack gameplay fr
    call of duty black ops 3 mod menu
    call of duty black ops 3 menu
    call of duty black ops 3 lobby

  20. I would like to thank you for the efforts you’ve put in writing this blog.
    I’m hoping to view the same high-grade content from you later on as well.

    In truth, your creative writing abilities has motivated
    me to get my very own blog now 😉

  21. Appreciating the time and effort you put into your website
    and in depth information you provide. It’s great to come across a blog every once in a while that isn’t the same out of date
    rehashed information. Wonderful read! I’ve bookmarked your site and I’m adding your RSS feeds to my Google account.

  22. Hi there! This post couldn’t be written any better! Looking
    through this article reminds me of my previous roommate! He constantly kept
    talking about this. I’ll forward this article to him.
    Pretty sure he will have a good read. Many thanks for
    sharing!

  23. I tend nnot to leaave a leave a response, however I looked through a ffew responses on this page South Africa
    divestment | radicalumass’s blog. I actually do have a couple of questions for yoou if it’s allright.
    Is it only me or do some of these emarks appear like they are lefdt by brain dead folks?
    😛 And, iif you are writing on additional online sites, I’d
    like to keesp upp with anything fresh you have to post.

    Could you make a list of every one off all your social networking sites like your linkedin profile, Facebook page or twittsr feed?

  24. Hello I am so glad I found your blog page, I really found you by accident, while I was searching on Askjeeve for something else,
    Anyways I am here now and would just like to say
    cheers for a remarkable post and a all round thrilling blog (I also love the theme/design),
    I don’t have time to look over it all at the moment but I have saved it
    and also included your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read much more,
    Please do keep up the great b.

  25. I’m impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog that’s both equally educative and interesting,
    and without a doubt, you’ve hit the nail on the head.
    The problem is something which too few people are speaking
    intelligently about. I am very happy I came across this in my hunt for something regarding
    this.

  26. Pay attention to the SPAM coverage. It is at all times greatest to avoid web hosts that “spam” their clients
    or that tolerates their purchasers doing this to their users.
    If there is not a selected document outlining their policy, verify the FAQ.

  27. I in addition to my friends have been checking the excellent thoughts on your web blog then suddenly I had an awful feeling I never expressed respect to the site owner for those techniques. Most of the men had been so very interested to learn all of them and have quite simply been loving those things. I appreciate you for being well accommodating and for picking out this sort of marvelous resources most people are really needing to learn about. My honest apologies for not expressing appreciation to you sooner.

  28. I do consider all of the concepts you’ve offered on your post. They’re really convincing and will definitely work. Still, the posts are very quick for novices. Could you please extend them a bit from subsequent time? Thank you for the post.

  29. Valuable info. Lucky me I found your site by chance, and I’m surprised
    why this twist of fate didn’t came about in advance!
    I bookmarked it.

  30. I was very pleased to find this web site. I wanted to thank you for your time just for this fantastic read!! I definitely really liked every part of it and I have you book-marked to look at new things in your web site.|

  31. On-line jewelry stores give you a numerous
    selection, from earrings to have the ability to gem stone jewelry, coming from bands in addition to bands to
    be able to timepieces and unique items (concerning special situations).
    Additionally, you’ll find items of diamond jewellery
    created from whitened or yellow gold, platinum, stainless, tungsten carbide, in addition to treasured gem stones – including rubies, sapphires, normally, and
    more. A wide range of merchandise, for those tastes in addition to fit for
    each celebration, then lie ready around being
    found. It is potential to easily discover essentially the most superb pieces of bijou, via diamond
    wedding anniversary bandz to gold or pearl jewellery in addition to
    ear-rings.

  32. I’m now not certain the place you’re getting your info, but great topic.

    I must spend a while learning more or figuring out more.
    Thanks for excellent information I used to be on the lookout for
    this information for my mission.

  33. I’m curious to find out what blog system you happen to be utilizing?
    I’m experiencing some minor security issues with my latest site and I’d like to find something more safeguarded.
    Do you have any recommendations?

  34. I don’t even know how I finished up right
    here, however I assumed this put up used to be good.

    I do not understand who you’re however definitely you’re going to a well-known blogger should you are not already.
    Cheers!

  35. Thanks for a marvelous posting! I genuinely enjoyed reading it, you are a great author.I
    will be sure to bookmark your blog and will come back someday.
    I want to encourage you to continue your great posts, have a nice weekend!

  36. I feel this is among the such a lot vital info for me. And i’m satisfied studying your article.
    But want to remark on few normal issues, The web site
    style is wonderful, the articles is actually great :
    D. Good task, cheers

  37. Hello there! I could have sworn I’ve been to this website before but after browsing
    through some of the posts I realized it’s new to me.
    Anyways, I’m certainly pleased I discovered it and I’ll be bookmarking it and checking
    back frequently!

  38. Heya i’m for the first time here. I found this board and I in finding It really useful & it helped me out much.
    I hope to present something back and help others like you aided me.

  39. Thanks for a marvelous posting! I quite enjoyed
    reading it, you can be a great author.I will always
    bookmark your blog and definitely will come back down the road.

    I want to encourage you continue your great job, have a nice day!

  40. The internet is crowded with thousands of different companies and they hold a singular target of marketing. It is, therefore, beyond one’s imagination how competitive is the task of those websites. Many of them, of course, remain somewhere on the internet away from the vision of the surfers. This is why responsibility of the search engines is so great. Obviously, the websites must be brilliantly created so that they can pull the visitors again and again. Moreover, contents of the website must perfectly match with its specific design. Quality of the website representing the products and/or services must find befitting search engine optimization services. It is the search engine which does its best to draw the traffic to the respective websites. In this context, one should bear in mind how reputed the SEO Expert Dubai is. SEO Expert Dubai, it is known to all, has the capacity to place a website just on the front page so that millions of viewers are left with no other option but to get stuck to the focused one.

  41. s SERPs (search engine result pages) only list pages on which the searched keywords were located
    not further than 520 KB from the start of the page.

    This is most likely because mobile users are often on the go.
    Infinity Web Solutions located in the Philippines provides infinite traffic
    and consistent presence of your business in the World Wide Web.

  42. I am really loving the theme/design of your site. Do you ever run into any web browser compatibility problems? A small number of my blog readers have complained about my blog not working correctly in Explorer but looks great in Chrome. Do you have any ideas to help fix this issue?

  43. Contacte para conocer todas las alternativas a su favor en cuanto a la intervención de todo tipo de aparatos electrodomésticos de la marca. En Córdoba puede encontrar el servicio técnico más indicado tanto para la reparación de electrodomésticos Bosch como para acciones en otras muchas marcas. Los operarios especializados del SAT que presentamos brindan reparación de secadoras de evacuación y de condensación.

  44. PRIORIDADES EN REPARACIÓN nuestros técnicos de Siemens dan prioridad a la reparación de neveras Siemens,frigorífico Siemens y congeladores Siemens por la importancia de este electrodoméstico en el que sabemos que hoy en día estos electrodomésticos son de gran importancia en una familia por los alimentos que podemos conservar en ellos y esto significaría una gran perdida sino esta funcionando en optimas condiciones.

  45. Oh my goodness! an incredible write-up dude. Appreciate it Nonetheless I’m experiencing problem with ur rss . Don’t know why Unable to register for it. Perhaps there is everyone obtaining identical rss dilemma? Anybody who knows kindly respond. Thnkx

  46. Damos cursos a empresas a cualquier nivel de electrónica, reparaciones de placas de portatil, televisores, ordenadores, rework, reballing, fabricantes y mayoristas de máquinaria de electrónica y de laboratorio. La reparación de electrodomésticos en Madrid la efectuamos en su propio domicilio, aportándole un presupuesto previo y una valoración de la avería y reparación sin ningún tipo de compromiso. En caso de que la reparación en el domicilio no fuera posible, el electrodoméstico sería llevado a nuestros talleres para una revisión mas exhaustiva.

  47. In here is a practical list of things which can be sent for home appliance repair.

    An alternate regular issue we find out about when we make house calls is in regards to the cooler entryway continually opening at whatever point the icebox entryway
    gets shut. But there are actually various types of windows and each has its
    own unique design, style and function.

  48. An impressive share, I simply given this onto a colleague who was simply performing a small analysis for this. And hubby in fact bought me breakfast since I came across it for him.. smile. So permit me to reword that: Thnx for that treat! But yeah Thnkx for spending any time to go over this, I feel strongly about it and love reading more about this topic. When possible, as you become expertise, do you mind updating your blog with an increase of details? It’s highly of great help for me. Large thumb up due to this post!

  49. I believe this is among the so much vital information for me.

    And i’m happy reading your article. However should observation on some common things, The site style is perfect, the articles is in reality excellent
    :D. Excellent task, cheers.

  50. As much as we love our children it is very important to make time
    for you and your spouse. Research suggests that quality tutoring can benefit students in a
    number of ways, including:. Let them know what you are planning to do and for how long.

  51. En octubre del 2011 nos dirigmos al HIPERCOR a comprar una lavadora, asesorados por el tecnico comercial que nos atendio, adquirimos una lavadora HAIER de importe 360€, sobre todo porque nos insistió en que cualquier problema, fallo que pudiera tener, estaba totalmente cubierto durante 2 años y estaríamos despreocupados absolutamente de todo. En junio del 2012, se rompe la puerta, puesto en contacto con el servicio técnico nos hacen saber que ese tipo de avería no está cubierto por la garantía, coste de la reparación 60€.

  52. Excellent goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff
    previous to and you are just too excellent. I really like what you’ve
    acquired here, certainly like what you’re saying and the way in which you say it.
    You make it entertaining and you still care for to keep it smart.
    I cant wait to read much more from you. This is really a tremendous
    website.

  53. The achieve plan is patterned out for a person who
    wishes to lose a weight of twenty-five pounds or more. A
    calorie journal will help you lose weight more effectively.
    It has been revealed that the stomach monitors the volume of
    food that comes in rather than the number of calories.

  54. so, after giving it much thought I decided that a travel system type of stroller
    is a more appropriate choice as your first stroller. They can ask each other questions like ‘What should we do today.
    Palin Mergrego is an author with a leading Comparison Shopping Search Engine.

  55. En el stand se colocaron electrodomésticos de nuestras factorías españolas, encimeras de gas de la fábrica cántabra, hornos pirolíticos de máxima eficiencia de la fábrica de Zaragoza y un frigorífico NoFrost de bajo consumo con puerta en acabado cristal de Esquíroz-Pamplona. Siemens valora la importancia de una buena reparación y, conociendo los inconvenientes que una avería del electrodoméstico ocasiona en la vida cotidiana del usuario, valora también la importancia de hacerlo con rapidez. El Centro de Atención al Usuario Siemens funciona las 24 horas del día, los 7 días de la semana.

  56. Damos asistencia técnica profesional en la reparación de todo tipo de electrodomésticos de la marca Siemens. Con nuestro Servicio de Urgencias podemos estar presentes en Castelldefels en un tiempo mínimo, para darle al cliente una solución rápida y eficaz. Muchas más veces de lo que piensa la mayor parte de la gente, se pueden utilizar aún muchos años tras una pequeña reparación. Casi todos los sabemos, pero casi nadie lo hace: el mantenimiento de los electrodomésticos Siemens es fundamental para que éstos funcionen al 100 y también para que puedan alargar su vida útil durante mucho más años.

  57. I believe this is one of the most significant info for me.
    And i am satisfied studying your article.
    However want to statement on few normal things, The site taste is wonderful, the articles is in point of fact great : D.

    Just right process, cheers

  58. Thanks for the marvelous posting! I genuinely
    enjoyed reading it, you might be a great author.I will be sure to bookmark
    your blog and will often come back at some point.
    I want to encourage continue your great posts, have a nice holiday weekend!

  59. Simply desire to say your article is as surprising.

    The clarity in your post is just spectacular and i could assume you
    are an expert on this subject. Fine with your permission let me to grab your feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post.
    Thanks a million and please keep up the gratifying work.

  60. Reparaciones: los materiales y mano de obra de las reparaciones efectuadas por el Servicio Oficial Siemens están garantizados durante un plazo de 2 años (garantía legal obligatoria solo 3 meses). Los repuestos originales son una garantía más de la calidad y fiabilidad de nuestras reparaciones. Nuestros repuestos son originales de fábrica y tenemos una alta disponibilidad de todos ellos, incluso para aparatos antiguos. Es posible concertar la reparación del electrodoméstico con un servicio VIP donde te atenderemos en menos de dos horas.

  61. Solicite nuestro S ervicio Técnico de Neveras para todo tipo de congeladores, cámaras de frió, refrigeración en general ya que hace falta localizar la fuga y si fuese necesario sustituir la pieza dañada del sistema recargar el gas de la nevera, porque puede resultarle más económico. Si deseas conocer qué tienda Babyliss se localiza más cercana a tu domicilio, te será útil hacer uso del buscador de puntos de venta que hallarás en la misma web de la marca. Desde luego, no pienso comprar nada más en esa timo tienda y me estoy planteando ir mañana a pedirles la hoja de reclamaciones.

  62. Have been a member for several years now. The online banking site is outstanding, full featured and easy to use. So much so in fact that I seldom have the need to visit a physical branch. Past interactions with representatives have all been positive experiences.

  63. I am especially proud because credit unions are not-for-profit organization that exists to serve their membership rather than shareholders whom seek maximize profit through fees and services. I just love my Credit Union.

  64. My first experience with my Credit Union was in 2008. At the time, I was working over 30 miles away from my home, and need cash bad. I call them and they were able to wire funds immediately to a local place. The customer service was awesome.

  65. Algunas instituciones bancarias cercanas al lugar donde se dio el problema decidieron cerrar sus oficinas por cuestiones de seguridad, pero en general los negocios siguieron prestando sus servicios en la penumbra. Para los partidos de oposición, las multas -que suman hasta el momento la cantidad de 78 millones 767 mil 715 pesos decretadas por los órganos electorales facultados, el Instituto Nacional Electoral (INE) y el Tribunal Electoral del Poder Judicial de la Federación (TEPJF)- son tardías porque el impacto en el elector ya está hecho. En el documento integraron tanto la campaña en internet, en Facebook y Twitter, así como con anuncios de Google que se pueden ver en Youtube y en consultas en el buscador.

  66. Hola, Javier, en este enlace puedes encontrar nuestros Servicios Técnicos Oficiales disponibles en Valladolid. Hola, Carles, en nuestra página web dispones de un buscador de Servicios Técnicos Oficiales Basta con que introduzcas la ciudad que te interesa y ya te aparecen las direcciones disponibles. Fuí al servicio post-venta de la calle Riera de Tena y siguen sin darme una solución, aún siendo un punto oficial no conocían el modelo y sigo sin poder usar la cafetera.

  67. Hmm it appears like your website ate my first comment (it was super long) so I guess I’ll just sum it up
    what I submitted and say, I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog.
    I as well am an aspiring blog writer but I’m still new to the whole thing.
    Do you have any tips and hints for newbie blog writers?
    I’d genuinely appreciate it.

  68. A mi, en principio, me parece comprensible que el fabricante venda su servicio técnico, como recomensación me parece una práctica lógica, convenciendo al comprador que el propio fabricante debería ser el mejor servicio de reparación, que sus piezas ‘originales’ son las ideales para los eelectrodomésticos, que sus talleres son los mejores preparados… sería lo lógico.

  69. Estuve apunto de trabajar alli, y en mi epoca no eran nada malos, ahora, en otros centros donde yo trabaje, cuando se da un terminal por irreparable pr ohumedad (mojado) se suele hacer un escaneado de la zona y se adjunta al pack en devolucion para que el cliente lo vea. No digo que sea tu caso, lo expongo para la gente, en el sat no son tontos, y te digo yo que SE VE MUY BIEN si esta mojado no. En todo caso, cuando me gasto un dinerillo en un aparato, no quiero tener problemas con él a las dos semanas.

  70. Nuestra amplia experiencia en el sector nos permite brindar un servicio integral de reparación de electrodomésticos de todo tipo y de todas las marcas. En nuestra tienda online podrá encontrar sus repuestos para Frigorificos a los precios más bajos del mercado. Contacte con nuestro servicio técnico Frigorificos para cualquiera avería en sus electrodomésticos. Los reparadores de este servicio técnico frigorificos son expertos en todos los electrodomésticos y manejan todos los días los últimos progresos tecnológicos, las herramientas y los repuestos originales que son necesarios para la reparación de su electrodoméstico.

  71. Thanks for the South Africa divestment | radicalumass’s blog entry, blogs.umass.edu webmaster!. For more information on how to create google adsense search show result within blog refer to Sebastian website or email me at mgl029@yahoo.co.in and get more information.

  72. Ponemos a disposición de nuestros clientes un presupuesto gratuito, sin compromiso y totalmente ajustable al bolsillo de cada cliente, porque no todos son iguales, por lo que ello supone una tarea difícil que es la de complacer a todos aquellos que confíen en nuestro servicio tecnico para frigorificos. No pierda el tiempo ni el dinero con otras empresas, le aseguramos y le damos total garantía de que sea el electrodoméstico que sea, la marca modelo del que disponga, tenemos a una amplia gama de profesionales especializados en todos y en cada uno de los diferentes áreas en las que le ofrecemos nuestro servicio tecnico de neveras.

  73. First off I want to say superb blog! I had a quick question in which I’d like to ask if
    you do not mind. I was curious to know how you
    center yourself and clear your mind prior to writing. I’ve had difficulty clearing my
    thoughts in getting my thoughts out. I do enjoy writing but
    it just seems like the first 10 to 15 minutes are wasted just trying to figure out
    how to begin. Any suggestions or tips? Kudos!

  74. En nos basamos en la transparencia por tanto no hacemos aproximaciones que den lugar a malos entendidos, apostamos por las valoraciones de manera presencial ya que consideramos para nuestros clientes la forma más apropiada y segura, en términos de soluciones eficientes, sin sobrecostes! Servicio Técnico de maquinaria industrial: Mantenedores, Aires Acondicionados, Congeladores, Vitrinas, Expositores, Neveras.

  75. Please let me know if you’re looking for a
    article aythor for your site. You have some really great plsts and I believe I
    would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some oof the load off,
    I’d realpy like to write some content for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine.

    Please shoot me an email if interested. Kudos!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *