Author Archives: cwcollins

Quantum Computers: How Google & NASA are pushing Artificial Intelligence to its limit

qcomp

“If you think you understand quantum physics, you don’t understand quantum physics”. Richard Feynman quoted that statment in relation to the fact that we simply do not yet fully understand the mechanics of the quantum world. NASA, Google, and DWave are trying to figure this out as well by revolutionizing our understanding of physics and computing with the first commercial quantum computer that runs 100 million times faster than traditional computers.

Quantum Computers: How they work

To understand how quantum computers work you must first recognize how traditional computers work. For several decades, a computer processor’s base component is the transistor. A transistor either allows or blocks the flow of electrons (aka electricity) with a gate. This transistor can then be one of two possible values: on or off, flowing or not flowing. The value of a transistor is binary, and is used to represent digital information by representing them in binary digits, or bits for short. Bits are very basic, but paired together can produce exponentially more and more possible values as they are added. Therefore, more transistors means faster data processing. To fit more transistors on a silicon chip we must keep shrinking the size of them. Transistors nowadays have gotten so small they are only the size of 14nm. This is 8x less than the size of an HIV virus and 500x smaller than a red blood cell.

As transistors are getting to the size of only a few atoms, electrons may just transfer through a blocked gate in a concept called quantum tunneling. This is because in the quantum realm physics works differently than what we are used to understanding, and computers start making less and less sense at this point. We are starting to see a physical barrier to the efficiency technological processes, but scientists are now using these unusual quantum properties to their advantage to develop quantum computers.

Introducing the Qubit!

With computers using bits as their smallest unit of information, quantum computers use qubits. Like bits, qubits can represent the values of 0 or 1. This 0 and 1 is determined by a photon and its spin in a magnetic field where polarization represents the value; what separates them from bits is that they can also be in any proportion of both states at once in a property called superpositioning. You can test the value of a photon by passing it through a filter, and it will collapse to be either vertically or horizontally polarized (0 or 1). Unobserved, the qubit is in superposition with probabilities for either state – but the instant you measure it it collapses to one of the definite states, being a game-changer for computing.

201011_qubit_vs_bit

When normal bits are lined up they can represent one of many possible values. For example, 4 bits can represent one of 16 (2^4) possible values depending on their orientation. 4 qubits on the other hand can represent all of these 16 combinations at once, with each added qubit growing the number of possible outcomes exponentially!

Qubits can also feel another property we can entanglement; a close connection that has qubits react to a change in the other’s state instantaneously regardless of the distance between them both. This means when you measure one value of a qubit, you can deduce the value of another without even having to look at it!

Traditional vs Quantum: Calculations Compared

When performing logic on traditional computers it is pretty simple. Computers perform logic on something we call logic gates using a simple set of inputs and producing a single output (based on AND, OR, XOR, and NAND). For example, two bits being 0 (false) and 1 (true) passed through an AND gate is 0 since both bits aren’t true. 0 and 1 being passed through an OR gate will be 1 since either of the two needs to have the value of true for the outcome to remain true. Quantum gates perform this on a much more complex level. They manipulate an input of superpositions (qubits each with probabilities of 0 or 1), rotates these probabilities and produces another superposition as an output; measuring the outcome, collapsing the superpositions into an actual sequence of 0s and 1s for one final definite answer. What this means is that you can get the entire lot of calculations possible with a setup all done at the same time!

quantum-computers-new-generation-of-computers-part1-by-prof-lili-saghafi-17-638

When measuring the result of qubit’s superpositions, they will probably give you the one you want. However you need to be sure that this outcome is correct so you may need to double check and try again. Exploiting the properties of superposition and entanglement can be exponentially more efficient than ever possible on a traditional computer.

What Quantum Computers mean for our future

Quantum computers will most likely not replace our home computers, but they are much more superior. In applications such as data searching in corporate databases, computers may need to search every entry in a table. Quantum computers can do this task in a square root of that time; and for tables with billions of entries this can save a tremendous amount of time and resources. The most famous use of quantum computers is IT security. Tasks such as online banking and browsing your email is kept secure by encryption, where a public key is made for everyone to encode messages only you can decode. Problem is public keys can be used to calculate one’s secret private key, but doing the math on a normal computer would literally take years of trial and error. Quantum computers can do this in a breeze with an exponential decrease in calculation time! Simulations in the quantum world are intense on resources, regular computers lack on resources for bigger structures such as molecules. So why not simulate quantum physics with actual quantum physics? Quantum simulations for instance could lead to insights on proteins that can revolutionize medicine as we know it.

140903112645-google-quantum-computer-1024x576

What’s going on now in Quantum Computing? How NASA & Google are using AI to reveal nature’s biggest secrets.

We’re unsure if quantum computers will only be a specialized tool, or a big revolution for humanity. We do not know the limits for technology but there is only one way to find out. One of the first commercial quantum computers developed by DWave will be stored in Google and NASA’s research center in California. They operate the chip at an incredible temperature at 200 times colder than interstellar space. They are currently focused on using it to solve optimization problems, finding the best outcome given a set of data. For example: finding the best flight path to visit a set of places you’d like to see. Google and NASA are also using artificial intelligence on this computer to further our understanding of the natural world. Since it operates on quantum level mechanics beyond our knowledge, we can ask it questions that we may never otherwise be able to figure out. Questions such as “are we alone?” and “where did we come from?” can be explored. We have evolved into creatures that are able to ask the nature of physical reality, and being able to solve the unknown is even more awesome as a species. We have the power to do it and we must do it, because that is what it means to be human.

Can you work off a 32GB storage laptop? The beginner’s guide to switching to the cloud.

Screenshot 2016-11-28 at 11.11.59 PM

Over the past 5 years the term ‘cloud’ has been moving around left and right. If you are asking what the cloud is then I’ll assure you it is not an actual cloud in the sky, but a term used to say that your data is kept for you in a far-off place. This was to make it easy for consumers to conceptualize where their data is, without too much of a misunderstanding.

Understanding the cloud conceptually:

What cloud really is is remote computing and storage, usually provided by corporate servers. A way to understand this best is by simple example: Let’s say you have a photo gallery on your computer and you want to place it in “the cloud”. I tell you I have a cloud service so that you can always have your files available without having them on your computer. You agree, and send the files to me via the internet. I tell you “you are now backed up in the cloud!” since your files are on my computer at this point. You then delete all the files on your device, but it’s okay since there is a copy on my computer. But now you want to view that old photo of yourself at that last weeks Thanksgiving get-together, but it is no longer on your computer. You simply ask me (the cloud) for that file back, and I send you the photo back for you to view.. and when you are done with it you can delete it again, or make changes to it and send me back the changes. Simple as that. I being the cloud, am essentially a remote flash drive or external hard drive to send you data when you need it.

Now obviously this is not exactly how the cloud works, but it is close. Let’s instead change it so my computer is now facebook or Google’s computers in a datacenter far-off from you, and that data is encrypted for security and provided with highspeed enterprise internet to send you your files as quickly as possible. Now we are using the cloud in the way it really works in the real world! Cloud services make it easy to view your files when “they are not there” in your computer. Such as Google Drive; when you install Google Drive you can view what files are available as if they are on your computer. This is Google’s servers telling you what file’s are on them. If you were to open a file, Google’s data center will send your computer that file to be stored as RAM rather than storage; when you click ‘Save’ you simply re-upload that file back to Google’s servers.

WEB APPS! More than just storage:

Most people think of only being able to store their files in the cloud, but there is much more available to them. As we already discussed cloud storage is a way to send data back and forth between computers. This means we can do more than just store your files, but we can also do tasks to those files and send you back the results in web-based applications!

Google Docs is a great example of this. When you open your Google Drive file in Docs, a website displays your file that is stored on Google’s servers. You can make changes to it on your browser and in real-time Google is making changes to that file on their end.

 

How to adapt to the future:

Cloud computing is starting to become the next big thing. We’re starting to see that we no longer need our computers to have high-end processors and large storage drives as long as we have a good internet connection. This means our computer’s can now be minimal in that they can be thinner, sleeker, and most importantly much cheaper.

Google has expressed this ideology of having a minimalist-type computer with their line of Chromebooks. Anyone trying to get into the web-app lifestyle would love the idea of the device. They’re cheap at ~$250, have fast storage for quick boot times, and have great network cards to maintain a solid internet connection. They only have 32gb of storage, but that’s okay since the entire operating system is based off the chrome browser. How can you manage just using the chrome browser? Again, web apps!

Here is a list of common programs and tasks you can replace with web-apps:

Storage: Box (recommended if you are a UMass affiliate), Google Drive, iCloud, or Mega

Gaming: Gaming Streaming Services! Such as OnLive, PS Now, or you can stream remotely if you have a high-end system.

Photoshop: Pixlr! A great website where you can have most of the features of Photoshop available to you for free all online!

Video-Editing: Use WeVideo, a website to upload videos and edit them all online.

Programming: There are several cloud based programming IDEs available, such as Cloud9 or CodeAnywhere!

Office: Google Docs has everything you need! From word, to powerpoint, to even excel. You and other collaborators can update your documents all in the Google Cloud, and even download them to your computer as a word document, pdf, or image file.

Music: You can use Spotify as a web-app, Google Play Music, or Amazon Prime Music as online subscription-based streaming services!

Movies/Shows: Most of us don’t even save movies anymore. Services like Netflix, Hulu, and Amazon Prime Video let you stream thousands of movies and shows instantly.

Other: If you are in desperate need of say a Windows PC or Mac and you have a desktop at home, then you can stream your computer’s session to your device. Services like TeamViewer, RDP, and Chrome Remote Desktop make this incredibly easy.

Recommended:

As you can see most services can be provided by Google, and is my recommendation to use for being in the Cloud. A simple subscription to Google Play services can get you all the apps you would need to perform most to all computer-related tasks today. Chrome extensions and apps are also limitless as you can download thousands of them online.

Conclusion:

My advice is to try to future-proof yourself and use the cloud for all purposes. It’s a great way to keep your data safe and backed up. It’s also a way to spend less on potentially unnecessary computing power. With the world turning to web-based applications, a simple chromebook for $200 could last you years and could save you thousands compared to buying the latest Apple or PC hardware.